Temporal analyses of coral snakebite severity published in the American Association of Poison Control Centers' Annual Reports from 1983 through 2007

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Abstract

Introduction.The only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved coral snake antivenom was officially discontinued in 2007, causing ever-diminishing supplies. This study describes the severity of U.S. coral snakebites during the last 25 years to determine trends in annual rates of these bites' medical outcomes.Methods.This study retrospectively analyzed all human coral snakebites voluntarily reported by the public andor health care professionals to poison centers that were subsequently published in the Annual Reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) from 1983 through 2007. Annual rates of medical outcomes from coral snakebites were calculated by dividing the annual number of people bitten by coral snakes who developed fatal, major, moderate, minor, or no effect outcomes by the total annual number of people bitten by coral snakes. Negative binomial regression was used to examine trends in annual rates.Results.From 1983 through 2007, the incidence rate of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased by 4.7 per year [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.953; 95 confidence interval (CI) 0.9200.987]. From 1985 through 2007, the incidence rates of minor and major outcomes did not significantly change; however, moderate outcomes significantly increased by 3.4 per year (IRR 1.034; 95 CI 1.0041.064). No fatalities were reported from 1983 through 2007.Conclusion.Annual rates of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased and those producing moderate outcomes significantly increased in our analyses of data from the last 25 years of published AAPCC Annual Reports. This study has important limitations that must be considered when interpreting these conclusions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)72-78
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Toxicology
Volume48
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2010

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Poison Control Centers
Snake Bites
Annual Reports
Anthozoa
Poisons
Elapidae
Antivenins
Incidence
Public health
Health care
Confidence Intervals
Bites and Stings
United States Food and Drug Administration
Public Health
Delivery of Health Care

Keywords

  • Coral snakebites
  • Epidemiology
  • Micrurus
  • Poison control centers
  • Snakebites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

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title = "Temporal analyses of coral snakebite severity published in the American Association of Poison Control Centers' Annual Reports from 1983 through 2007",
abstract = "Introduction.The only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved coral snake antivenom was officially discontinued in 2007, causing ever-diminishing supplies. This study describes the severity of U.S. coral snakebites during the last 25 years to determine trends in annual rates of these bites' medical outcomes.Methods.This study retrospectively analyzed all human coral snakebites voluntarily reported by the public andor health care professionals to poison centers that were subsequently published in the Annual Reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) from 1983 through 2007. Annual rates of medical outcomes from coral snakebites were calculated by dividing the annual number of people bitten by coral snakes who developed fatal, major, moderate, minor, or no effect outcomes by the total annual number of people bitten by coral snakes. Negative binomial regression was used to examine trends in annual rates.Results.From 1983 through 2007, the incidence rate of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased by 4.7 per year [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.953; 95 confidence interval (CI) 0.9200.987]. From 1985 through 2007, the incidence rates of minor and major outcomes did not significantly change; however, moderate outcomes significantly increased by 3.4 per year (IRR 1.034; 95 CI 1.0041.064). No fatalities were reported from 1983 through 2007.Conclusion.Annual rates of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased and those producing moderate outcomes significantly increased in our analyses of data from the last 25 years of published AAPCC Annual Reports. This study has important limitations that must be considered when interpreting these conclusions.",
keywords = "Coral snakebites, Epidemiology, Micrurus, Poison control centers, Snakebites",
author = "Walter, {Frank G} and Uwe Stolz and Farshad Shirazi and Jude McNally",
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language = "English (US)",
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AU - Shirazi, Farshad

AU - McNally, Jude

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N2 - Introduction.The only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved coral snake antivenom was officially discontinued in 2007, causing ever-diminishing supplies. This study describes the severity of U.S. coral snakebites during the last 25 years to determine trends in annual rates of these bites' medical outcomes.Methods.This study retrospectively analyzed all human coral snakebites voluntarily reported by the public andor health care professionals to poison centers that were subsequently published in the Annual Reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) from 1983 through 2007. Annual rates of medical outcomes from coral snakebites were calculated by dividing the annual number of people bitten by coral snakes who developed fatal, major, moderate, minor, or no effect outcomes by the total annual number of people bitten by coral snakes. Negative binomial regression was used to examine trends in annual rates.Results.From 1983 through 2007, the incidence rate of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased by 4.7 per year [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.953; 95 confidence interval (CI) 0.9200.987]. From 1985 through 2007, the incidence rates of minor and major outcomes did not significantly change; however, moderate outcomes significantly increased by 3.4 per year (IRR 1.034; 95 CI 1.0041.064). No fatalities were reported from 1983 through 2007.Conclusion.Annual rates of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased and those producing moderate outcomes significantly increased in our analyses of data from the last 25 years of published AAPCC Annual Reports. This study has important limitations that must be considered when interpreting these conclusions.

AB - Introduction.The only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved coral snake antivenom was officially discontinued in 2007, causing ever-diminishing supplies. This study describes the severity of U.S. coral snakebites during the last 25 years to determine trends in annual rates of these bites' medical outcomes.Methods.This study retrospectively analyzed all human coral snakebites voluntarily reported by the public andor health care professionals to poison centers that were subsequently published in the Annual Reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) from 1983 through 2007. Annual rates of medical outcomes from coral snakebites were calculated by dividing the annual number of people bitten by coral snakes who developed fatal, major, moderate, minor, or no effect outcomes by the total annual number of people bitten by coral snakes. Negative binomial regression was used to examine trends in annual rates.Results.From 1983 through 2007, the incidence rate of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased by 4.7 per year [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.953; 95 confidence interval (CI) 0.9200.987]. From 1985 through 2007, the incidence rates of minor and major outcomes did not significantly change; however, moderate outcomes significantly increased by 3.4 per year (IRR 1.034; 95 CI 1.0041.064). No fatalities were reported from 1983 through 2007.Conclusion.Annual rates of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased and those producing moderate outcomes significantly increased in our analyses of data from the last 25 years of published AAPCC Annual Reports. This study has important limitations that must be considered when interpreting these conclusions.

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