Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice: LEND results from LRO

A. B. Sanin, I. G. Mitrofanov, M. L. Litvak, A. Malakhov, William V. Boynton, G. Chin, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, J. Garvin, D. V. Golovin, K. Harshman, T. P. McClanahan, M. I. Mokrousov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Neumann, R. Sagdeev, D. E. Smith, R. D. Starr, M. T. Zuber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We use measurements from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) collimated sensors during more than one year of the mapping phase of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to make estimates of the epithermal neutron flux within known large Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). These are compared with the local neutron background measured outside PSRs in sunlit regions. Individual and collective analyses of PSR properties have been performed. Only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the south and Rozhdestvensky U in the north, have been found to manifest significant neutron suppression. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, only a few percent, if at all. Some even display an excess of neutron emission in comparison to the sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only the group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 km 2, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, ∼2%, with low statistical confidence. A ∼2% suppression corresponds to ∼125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous H distribution in depth in the regolith. This means that all PSRs, except those in Shoemaker, Cabeus and Rozhdestvensky U craters, do not contain any significant amount of hydrogen in comparison with sunlit areas around them at the same latitude.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberE00H26
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Volume117
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012

Fingerprint

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
lunar exploration
Lunar missions
Neutron detectors
neutron counters
Ice
Neutrons
ice
retarding
Water
Hydrogen
Testing
Neutron emission
water
Neutron flux
neutrons
NASA
Poles
neutron emission
regolith

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Sanin, A. B., Mitrofanov, I. G., Litvak, M. L., Malakhov, A., Boynton, W. V., Chin, G., ... Zuber, M. T. (2012). Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice: LEND results from LRO. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 117(6), [E00H26]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JE003971

Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice : LEND results from LRO. / Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, William V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R. D.; Zuber, M. T.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, No. 6, E00H26, 2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sanin, AB, Mitrofanov, IG, Litvak, ML, Malakhov, A, Boynton, WV, Chin, G, Droege, G, Evans, LG, Garvin, J, Golovin, DV, Harshman, K, McClanahan, TP, Mokrousov, MI, Mazarico, E, Milikh, G, Neumann, G, Sagdeev, R, Smith, DE, Starr, RD & Zuber, MT 2012, 'Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice: LEND results from LRO', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol. 117, no. 6, E00H26. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JE003971
Sanin, A. B. ; Mitrofanov, I. G. ; Litvak, M. L. ; Malakhov, A. ; Boynton, William V. ; Chin, G. ; Droege, G. ; Evans, L. G. ; Garvin, J. ; Golovin, D. V. ; Harshman, K. ; McClanahan, T. P. ; Mokrousov, M. I. ; Mazarico, E. ; Milikh, G. ; Neumann, G. ; Sagdeev, R. ; Smith, D. E. ; Starr, R. D. ; Zuber, M. T. / Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice : LEND results from LRO. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2012 ; Vol. 117, No. 6.
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