The Chandra multiwavelength project: Optical follow-up of serendipitous Chandra sources

P. J. Green, J. D. Silverman, R. A. Cameron, D. W. Kim, B. J. Wilkes, W. A. Barkhouse, A. LaCluyzé, D. Morris, A. Mossman, H. Ghosh, J. P. Grimes, Buell Tomasson Jannuzi, H. Tananbaum, T. L. Aldcroft, J. A. Baldwin, F. H. Chaffee, A. Dey, A. Dosaj, N. R. Evans, Xiaohui FanC. Foltz, T. Gaetz, E. J. Hooper, V. L. Kashyap, S. Mathur, M. B. McGarry, E. Romero-Colmenero, M. G. Smith, P. S. Smith, R. C. Smith, G. Torres, A. Vikhlinin, D. R. Wik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present follow-up optical g′, r′, and i′ imaging and spectroscopy of serendipitous X-ray sources detected in six archival Chandra images included in the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP). Of the 486 X-ray sources detected between 3 × 10-16 and 2 × 10 -13 (with a median flux of 3 × 10-15) ergs cm -2 s-1, we find optical counterparts for 377 (78%), or 335 (68%) counting only unique counterparts. We present spectroscopic classifications for 125 objects, representing 75% of sources with r* < 21 optical counterparts (63% to r* = 22). Of all classified objects, 63 (50%) are broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which tend to be blue in (g*-r*) colors. X-ray information efficiently segregates these quasars from stars, which otherwise strongly overlap in these SDSS colors until z > 3.5. We identify 28 sources (22%) as galaxies that show narrow emission lines, while 22 (18%) are absorption line galaxies. Eight galaxies lacking broad-line emission have X-ray luminosities that require they host an AGN (log Lx > 43). Half of these have hard X-ray emission suggesting that high gas columns obscure both the X-ray continuum and the broad emission line regions. We find objects in our sample that show signs of X-ray or optical absorption, or both, but with no strong evidence that these properties are coupled. ChaMP's deep X-ray and optical imaging enable multiband selection of small and/or high-redshift groups and clusters. In these six fields we have discovered three new clusters of galaxies, two with z > 0.4, and one with photometric evidence for a similar redshift.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-71
Number of pages29
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Volume150
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes

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x rays
galaxies
project
erg
counting
optical absorption
spectroscopy
luminosity
continuums
gases
gas

Keywords

  • Galaxies: active
  • Quasars: general
  • Surveys
  • X-rays: galaxies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Green, P. J., Silverman, J. D., Cameron, R. A., Kim, D. W., Wilkes, B. J., Barkhouse, W. A., ... Wik, D. R. (2004). The Chandra multiwavelength project: Optical follow-up of serendipitous Chandra sources. Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, 150(1), 43-71. https://doi.org/10.1086/379818

The Chandra multiwavelength project : Optical follow-up of serendipitous Chandra sources. / Green, P. J.; Silverman, J. D.; Cameron, R. A.; Kim, D. W.; Wilkes, B. J.; Barkhouse, W. A.; LaCluyzé, A.; Morris, D.; Mossman, A.; Ghosh, H.; Grimes, J. P.; Jannuzi, Buell Tomasson; Tananbaum, H.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Baldwin, J. A.; Chaffee, F. H.; Dey, A.; Dosaj, A.; Evans, N. R.; Fan, Xiaohui; Foltz, C.; Gaetz, T.; Hooper, E. J.; Kashyap, V. L.; Mathur, S.; McGarry, M. B.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Smith, M. G.; Smith, P. S.; Smith, R. C.; Torres, G.; Vikhlinin, A.; Wik, D. R.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, Vol. 150, No. 1, 01.2004, p. 43-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Green, PJ, Silverman, JD, Cameron, RA, Kim, DW, Wilkes, BJ, Barkhouse, WA, LaCluyzé, A, Morris, D, Mossman, A, Ghosh, H, Grimes, JP, Jannuzi, BT, Tananbaum, H, Aldcroft, TL, Baldwin, JA, Chaffee, FH, Dey, A, Dosaj, A, Evans, NR, Fan, X, Foltz, C, Gaetz, T, Hooper, EJ, Kashyap, VL, Mathur, S, McGarry, MB, Romero-Colmenero, E, Smith, MG, Smith, PS, Smith, RC, Torres, G, Vikhlinin, A & Wik, DR 2004, 'The Chandra multiwavelength project: Optical follow-up of serendipitous Chandra sources', Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 43-71. https://doi.org/10.1086/379818
Green, P. J. ; Silverman, J. D. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Kim, D. W. ; Wilkes, B. J. ; Barkhouse, W. A. ; LaCluyzé, A. ; Morris, D. ; Mossman, A. ; Ghosh, H. ; Grimes, J. P. ; Jannuzi, Buell Tomasson ; Tananbaum, H. ; Aldcroft, T. L. ; Baldwin, J. A. ; Chaffee, F. H. ; Dey, A. ; Dosaj, A. ; Evans, N. R. ; Fan, Xiaohui ; Foltz, C. ; Gaetz, T. ; Hooper, E. J. ; Kashyap, V. L. ; Mathur, S. ; McGarry, M. B. ; Romero-Colmenero, E. ; Smith, M. G. ; Smith, P. S. ; Smith, R. C. ; Torres, G. ; Vikhlinin, A. ; Wik, D. R. / The Chandra multiwavelength project : Optical follow-up of serendipitous Chandra sources. In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 2004 ; Vol. 150, No. 1. pp. 43-71.
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AU - Green, P. J.

AU - Silverman, J. D.

AU - Cameron, R. A.

AU - Kim, D. W.

AU - Wilkes, B. J.

AU - Barkhouse, W. A.

AU - LaCluyzé, A.

AU - Morris, D.

AU - Mossman, A.

AU - Ghosh, H.

AU - Grimes, J. P.

AU - Jannuzi, Buell Tomasson

AU - Tananbaum, H.

AU - Aldcroft, T. L.

AU - Baldwin, J. A.

AU - Chaffee, F. H.

AU - Dey, A.

AU - Dosaj, A.

AU - Evans, N. R.

AU - Fan, Xiaohui

AU - Foltz, C.

AU - Gaetz, T.

AU - Hooper, E. J.

AU - Kashyap, V. L.

AU - Mathur, S.

AU - McGarry, M. B.

AU - Romero-Colmenero, E.

AU - Smith, M. G.

AU - Smith, P. S.

AU - Smith, R. C.

AU - Torres, G.

AU - Vikhlinin, A.

AU - Wik, D. R.

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N2 - We present follow-up optical g′, r′, and i′ imaging and spectroscopy of serendipitous X-ray sources detected in six archival Chandra images included in the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP). Of the 486 X-ray sources detected between 3 × 10-16 and 2 × 10 -13 (with a median flux of 3 × 10-15) ergs cm -2 s-1, we find optical counterparts for 377 (78%), or 335 (68%) counting only unique counterparts. We present spectroscopic classifications for 125 objects, representing 75% of sources with r* < 21 optical counterparts (63% to r* = 22). Of all classified objects, 63 (50%) are broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which tend to be blue in (g*-r*) colors. X-ray information efficiently segregates these quasars from stars, which otherwise strongly overlap in these SDSS colors until z > 3.5. We identify 28 sources (22%) as galaxies that show narrow emission lines, while 22 (18%) are absorption line galaxies. Eight galaxies lacking broad-line emission have X-ray luminosities that require they host an AGN (log Lx > 43). Half of these have hard X-ray emission suggesting that high gas columns obscure both the X-ray continuum and the broad emission line regions. We find objects in our sample that show signs of X-ray or optical absorption, or both, but with no strong evidence that these properties are coupled. ChaMP's deep X-ray and optical imaging enable multiband selection of small and/or high-redshift groups and clusters. In these six fields we have discovered three new clusters of galaxies, two with z > 0.4, and one with photometric evidence for a similar redshift.

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KW - Galaxies: active

KW - Quasars: general

KW - Surveys

KW - X-rays: galaxies

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