The clouds of Venus

R. G. Knollenberg, J. Hansen, B. Ragent, J. Martonchik, M. Tomasko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

The current state of knowledge of the Venusian clouds is reviewed. The visible clouds of Venus are shown to be quite similar to low level terrestrial hazes of strong anthropogenic influence. Possible nucleation and particle growth mechanisms are presented. The Pioneer Venus experiments that emphasize cloud measurements are described and their expected findings are discussed in detail. The results of these experiments should define the cloud particle composition, microphysics, thermal and radiative heat budget, rough dynamical features and horizontal and vertical variations in these and other parameters. This information should be sufficient to initialize cloud models which can be used to explain the cloud formation, decay, and particle life cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)329-354
Number of pages26
JournalSpace Science Reviews
Volume20
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 1977

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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    Knollenberg, R. G., Hansen, J., Ragent, B., Martonchik, J., & Tomasko, M. (1977). The clouds of Venus. Space Science Reviews, 20(3), 329-354. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02186469