The costs and benefits of refuge requirements

The case of Bt cotton

George B Frisvold, Jeanne M. Reeves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Refuge requirements have been the primary regulatory tool to delay pest resistance to Bt crops. This paper presents a simple method to estimate the annual cost of refuges to producers, applying it to Bt cotton. It also examines broader welfare impacts, estimating how Bt cotton acreage restrictions affect producer surplus, consumer surplus, seed supplier profits, and commodity program outlays. The implications of grower adoption behavior - partial adoption, aggregate adoption, and refuge choice - for regulatory costs are examined. Empirical examples illustrate how providing multiple refuge options significantly reduces regulatory costs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-97
Number of pages11
JournalEcological Economics
Volume65
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

refuge
cotton
commodity programs
consumer surplus
pest resistance
cost
profits and margins
growers
adoption behavior
welfare impact
crops
seeds
commodity
seed
crop
Bt cotton
Costs and benefits
Regulatory costs
methodology
producer surplus

Keywords

  • Bt cotton
  • Refuges
  • Resistance management
  • Technology adoption

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Ecology

Cite this

The costs and benefits of refuge requirements : The case of Bt cotton. / Frisvold, George B; Reeves, Jeanne M.

In: Ecological Economics, Vol. 65, No. 1, 15.03.2008, p. 87-97.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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