The desert tortoise trichotomy: Mexico hosts a third, new sister-species of tortoise in the gopherus morafkai–G. agassizii group

Taylor Edwards, Alice E. Karl, Mercy Vaughn, Philip C. Rosen, Cristina Meléndez Torres, Robert W. Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Desert tortoises (Testudines; Testudinidae; Gopherus agassizii group) have an extensive distribution throughout the Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran desert regions. Not surprisingly, they exhibit a tremendous amount of ecological, behavioral, morphological and genetic variation. Gopherus agassizii was considered a single species for almost 150 years but recently the species was split into the nominate form and Morafka’s desert tortoise, G. morafkai, the latter occurring south and east of the Colorado River. Whereas a large body of literature focuses on tortoises in the United States, a dearth of investigations exists for Mexican animals. Notwithstanding, Mexican populations of desert tortoises in the southern part of the range of G. morafkai are distinct, particularly where the tortoises occur in tropical thornscrub and tropical deciduous forest. Recent studies have shed light on the ecology, morphology and genetics of these southern ‘desert’ tortoises. All evidence warrants recognition of this clade as a distinctive taxon and herein we describe it as Gopherus evgoodei sp. n. The description of the new species significantly reduces and limits the distribution of G. morafkai to desertscrub habitat only. By contrast, G. evgoodei sp. n. occurs in thornscrub and tropical deciduous forests only and this leaves it with the smallest range of the three sister species. We present conservation implications for the newly described Gopherus evgoodei, which already faces impending threats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-158
Number of pages28
JournalZooKeys
Volume2016
Issue number562
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

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Keywords

  • Gopherus agassizii
  • Gopherus morafkai
  • Sinaloa
  • Sonora
  • Testudinidae
  • Xerobates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology

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