The design, synthesis, and evaluation of 8 hybrid DFG-out allosteric kinase inhibitors: A structural analysis of the binding interactions of Gleevec ®, Nexavar®, and BIRB-796

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Abstract

The majority of kinase inhibitors developed to date are competitive inhibitors that target the ATP binding site; however, recent crystal structures of Gleevec® (imatinib mesylate, STI571, PDB: 1IEP), Nexavar ® (Sorafenib tosylate, BAY 43-9006, PDB: 1UWJ), and BIRB-796 (PDB: 1KV2) have revealed a secondary binding site adjacent to the ATP binding site known as the DFG-out allosteric binding site. The recent successes of Gleevec® and Nexavar® for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and renal cell carcinoma has generated great interest in the development of other kinase inhibitors that target this secondary binding site. Here, we present a structural comparison of the important and similar interactions necessary for Gleevec®, Nexavar®, and BIRB-796 to bind to their respective DFG-out allosteric binding pockets and the selectivity of each with respect to c-Abl, B-Raf, and p38α. A structural analysis of their selectivity profiles has been generated from the synthesis and evaluation of 8 additional DFG-out allosteric inhibitors that were developed directly from fragments of these successful scaffolds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5738-5748
Number of pages11
JournalBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry
Volume18
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2010

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Structural analysis
Phosphotransferases
Binding Sites
Adenosine Triphosphate
Allosteric Site
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Scaffolds
Crystal structure
Cells
BIRB 796
Imatinib Mesylate
sorafenib

Keywords

  • Allosteric structure based drug design kinase type II

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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