The effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil on humor appreciation during sleep deprivation

William Killgore, Sharon A. McBride, Desiree B. Killgore, Thomas J. Balkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Study Objectives: Sleep loss consistently impairs performance on measures of alertness, vigilance, and response speed, but its effects on higher-order executive functions are not well delineated. Similarly, whereas deficits in arousal and vigilance can be temporarily countered by the use of several different stimulant medications, it is not clear how these compounds affect complex cognitive processes in sleep-deprived individuals. Design: We evaluated the effects of double-blind administration of 3 stimulant medications or placebo on the ability to appreciate humor in visual (cartoons) or verbal (headlines) stimuli presented on a computer screen following 49.5 hours of sleep deprivation. Setting: In-residence sleep-laboratory facility at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Participants: Fifty-four healthy adults (29 men, 24 women), ranging in age from 18 to 36 years. Interventions: Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stimulant medication groups, including caffeine, 600 mg, n = 12; modafinil, 400 mg, n = 11; dextroamphetamine, 20 mg, n = 16; or placebo, n = 14. Measurements and Results: Humor appreciation for cartoon stimuli was enhanced by modafinil relative to both placebo and caffeine, but there was no effect of any stimulant medication on the appreciation of verbal humor during sleep loss. In contrast, all 3 stimulants improved psychomotor response speed, whereas only caffeine and dextroamphetamine improved ratings of subjective sleepiness. Conclusions: Findings suggest that, despite similar alerting and vigilance-promoting effects, these 3 compounds have significantly different effects on those highly complex cognitive abilities mediated by the prefrontal cortex.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)841-847
Number of pages7
JournalSleep
Volume29
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Dextroamphetamine
Wit and Humor
Sleep Deprivation
Caffeine
Sleep
Cartoons
Aptitude
Placebos
Executive Function
Arousal
Prefrontal Cortex
modafinil

Keywords

  • Caffeine
  • Cognitive function
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Humor appreciation
  • Modafinil
  • Performance
  • Sleep deprivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology

Cite this

The effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil on humor appreciation during sleep deprivation. / Killgore, William; McBride, Sharon A.; Killgore, Desiree B.; Balkin, Thomas J.

In: Sleep, Vol. 29, No. 6, 01.06.2006, p. 841-847.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Killgore, W, McBride, SA, Killgore, DB & Balkin, TJ 2006, 'The effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil on humor appreciation during sleep deprivation', Sleep, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 841-847.
Killgore, William ; McBride, Sharon A. ; Killgore, Desiree B. ; Balkin, Thomas J. / The effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil on humor appreciation during sleep deprivation. In: Sleep. 2006 ; Vol. 29, No. 6. pp. 841-847.
@article{117a8b89b61f4b9887da6062da5ae705,
title = "The effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil on humor appreciation during sleep deprivation",
abstract = "Study Objectives: Sleep loss consistently impairs performance on measures of alertness, vigilance, and response speed, but its effects on higher-order executive functions are not well delineated. Similarly, whereas deficits in arousal and vigilance can be temporarily countered by the use of several different stimulant medications, it is not clear how these compounds affect complex cognitive processes in sleep-deprived individuals. Design: We evaluated the effects of double-blind administration of 3 stimulant medications or placebo on the ability to appreciate humor in visual (cartoons) or verbal (headlines) stimuli presented on a computer screen following 49.5 hours of sleep deprivation. Setting: In-residence sleep-laboratory facility at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Participants: Fifty-four healthy adults (29 men, 24 women), ranging in age from 18 to 36 years. Interventions: Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stimulant medication groups, including caffeine, 600 mg, n = 12; modafinil, 400 mg, n = 11; dextroamphetamine, 20 mg, n = 16; or placebo, n = 14. Measurements and Results: Humor appreciation for cartoon stimuli was enhanced by modafinil relative to both placebo and caffeine, but there was no effect of any stimulant medication on the appreciation of verbal humor during sleep loss. In contrast, all 3 stimulants improved psychomotor response speed, whereas only caffeine and dextroamphetamine improved ratings of subjective sleepiness. Conclusions: Findings suggest that, despite similar alerting and vigilance-promoting effects, these 3 compounds have significantly different effects on those highly complex cognitive abilities mediated by the prefrontal cortex.",
keywords = "Caffeine, Cognitive function, Dextroamphetamine, Humor appreciation, Modafinil, Performance, Sleep deprivation",
author = "William Killgore and McBride, {Sharon A.} and Killgore, {Desiree B.} and Balkin, {Thomas J.}",
year = "2006",
month = "6",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "841--847",
journal = "Sleep",
issn = "0161-8105",
publisher = "American Academy of Sleep Medicine",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil on humor appreciation during sleep deprivation

AU - Killgore, William

AU - McBride, Sharon A.

AU - Killgore, Desiree B.

AU - Balkin, Thomas J.

PY - 2006/6/1

Y1 - 2006/6/1

N2 - Study Objectives: Sleep loss consistently impairs performance on measures of alertness, vigilance, and response speed, but its effects on higher-order executive functions are not well delineated. Similarly, whereas deficits in arousal and vigilance can be temporarily countered by the use of several different stimulant medications, it is not clear how these compounds affect complex cognitive processes in sleep-deprived individuals. Design: We evaluated the effects of double-blind administration of 3 stimulant medications or placebo on the ability to appreciate humor in visual (cartoons) or verbal (headlines) stimuli presented on a computer screen following 49.5 hours of sleep deprivation. Setting: In-residence sleep-laboratory facility at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Participants: Fifty-four healthy adults (29 men, 24 women), ranging in age from 18 to 36 years. Interventions: Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stimulant medication groups, including caffeine, 600 mg, n = 12; modafinil, 400 mg, n = 11; dextroamphetamine, 20 mg, n = 16; or placebo, n = 14. Measurements and Results: Humor appreciation for cartoon stimuli was enhanced by modafinil relative to both placebo and caffeine, but there was no effect of any stimulant medication on the appreciation of verbal humor during sleep loss. In contrast, all 3 stimulants improved psychomotor response speed, whereas only caffeine and dextroamphetamine improved ratings of subjective sleepiness. Conclusions: Findings suggest that, despite similar alerting and vigilance-promoting effects, these 3 compounds have significantly different effects on those highly complex cognitive abilities mediated by the prefrontal cortex.

AB - Study Objectives: Sleep loss consistently impairs performance on measures of alertness, vigilance, and response speed, but its effects on higher-order executive functions are not well delineated. Similarly, whereas deficits in arousal and vigilance can be temporarily countered by the use of several different stimulant medications, it is not clear how these compounds affect complex cognitive processes in sleep-deprived individuals. Design: We evaluated the effects of double-blind administration of 3 stimulant medications or placebo on the ability to appreciate humor in visual (cartoons) or verbal (headlines) stimuli presented on a computer screen following 49.5 hours of sleep deprivation. Setting: In-residence sleep-laboratory facility at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Participants: Fifty-four healthy adults (29 men, 24 women), ranging in age from 18 to 36 years. Interventions: Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stimulant medication groups, including caffeine, 600 mg, n = 12; modafinil, 400 mg, n = 11; dextroamphetamine, 20 mg, n = 16; or placebo, n = 14. Measurements and Results: Humor appreciation for cartoon stimuli was enhanced by modafinil relative to both placebo and caffeine, but there was no effect of any stimulant medication on the appreciation of verbal humor during sleep loss. In contrast, all 3 stimulants improved psychomotor response speed, whereas only caffeine and dextroamphetamine improved ratings of subjective sleepiness. Conclusions: Findings suggest that, despite similar alerting and vigilance-promoting effects, these 3 compounds have significantly different effects on those highly complex cognitive abilities mediated by the prefrontal cortex.

KW - Caffeine

KW - Cognitive function

KW - Dextroamphetamine

KW - Humor appreciation

KW - Modafinil

KW - Performance

KW - Sleep deprivation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33745134091&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33745134091&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 16796223

AN - SCOPUS:33745134091

VL - 29

SP - 841

EP - 847

JO - Sleep

JF - Sleep

SN - 0161-8105

IS - 6

ER -