### Abstract

The Universe has a gravitational horizon, coincident with the Hubble sphere, that plays an important role in how we interpret the cosmological data. Recently, however, its significance as a true horizon has been called into question, even for cosmologies with an equation-of-state w≡p/ρ -1, where p and ρ are the total pressure and energy density, respectively. The claim behind this argument is that its radius R _{h} does not constitute a limit to our observability when the Universe contains phantom energy, i.e., when w < -1, as if somehow that mitigates the relevance of R _{h} to the observations when w > -1. In this paper, we reaffirm the role of R _{h} as the limit to how far we can see sources in the cosmos, regardless of the Universe's equation of state, and point out that claims to the contrary are simply based on an improper interpretation of the null geodesics.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Article number | 029 |

Journal | Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics |

Volume | 2012 |

Issue number | 9 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Sep 2012 |

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### Keywords

- cosmological parameters from CMBR
- cosmology of theories beyond the SM
- dark energy theory
- gravity

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Astronomy and Astrophysics

### Cite this

**The gravitational horizon for a Universe with phantom energy.** / Melia, Fulvio.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The gravitational horizon for a Universe with phantom energy

AU - Melia, Fulvio

PY - 2012/9

Y1 - 2012/9

N2 - The Universe has a gravitational horizon, coincident with the Hubble sphere, that plays an important role in how we interpret the cosmological data. Recently, however, its significance as a true horizon has been called into question, even for cosmologies with an equation-of-state w≡p/ρ -1, where p and ρ are the total pressure and energy density, respectively. The claim behind this argument is that its radius R h does not constitute a limit to our observability when the Universe contains phantom energy, i.e., when w < -1, as if somehow that mitigates the relevance of R h to the observations when w > -1. In this paper, we reaffirm the role of R h as the limit to how far we can see sources in the cosmos, regardless of the Universe's equation of state, and point out that claims to the contrary are simply based on an improper interpretation of the null geodesics.

AB - The Universe has a gravitational horizon, coincident with the Hubble sphere, that plays an important role in how we interpret the cosmological data. Recently, however, its significance as a true horizon has been called into question, even for cosmologies with an equation-of-state w≡p/ρ -1, where p and ρ are the total pressure and energy density, respectively. The claim behind this argument is that its radius R h does not constitute a limit to our observability when the Universe contains phantom energy, i.e., when w < -1, as if somehow that mitigates the relevance of R h to the observations when w > -1. In this paper, we reaffirm the role of R h as the limit to how far we can see sources in the cosmos, regardless of the Universe's equation of state, and point out that claims to the contrary are simply based on an improper interpretation of the null geodesics.

KW - cosmological parameters from CMBR

KW - cosmology of theories beyond the SM

KW - dark energy theory

KW - gravity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84866880698&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84866880698&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1475-7516/2012/09/029

DO - 10.1088/1475-7516/2012/09/029

M3 - Article

VL - 2012

JO - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

JF - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

SN - 1475-7516

IS - 9

M1 - 029

ER -