The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT)

M. Feroci, L. Stella, M. van der Klis, T. J L Courvoisier, M. Hernanz, R. Hudec, A. Santangelo, D. Walton, A. Zdziarski, D. Barret, T. Belloni, J. Braga, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, S. Campana, J. W. den Herder, J. Huovelin, G. L. Israel, M. Pohl, P. Ray & 183 others A. Vacchi, S. Zane, A. Argan, P. Attinà, G. Bertuccio, E. Bozzo, R. Campana, D. Chakrabarty, E. Costa, A. de Rosa, E. Del Monte, S. Di Cosimo, I. Donnarumma, Y. Evangelista, D. Haas, P. Jonker, S. Korpela, C. Labanti, P. Malcovati, R. Mignani, F. Muleri, M. Rapisarda, A. Rashevsky, N. Rea, A. Rubini, C. Tenzer, C. Wilson-Hodge, B. Winter, K. Wood, G. Zampa, N. Zampa, M. A. Abramowicz, M. A. Alpar, D. Altamirano, J. M. Alvarez, L. Amati, C. Amoros, L. A. Antonelli, R. Artigue, P. Azzarello, M. Bachetti, G. Baldazzi, M. Barbera, C. Barbieri, S. Basa, A. Baykal, R. Belmont, L. Boirin, V. Bonvicini, L. Burderi, M. Bursa, C. Cabanac, E. Cackett, G. A. Caliandro, P. Casella, S. Chaty, J. Chenevez, M. J. Coe, A. Collura, A. Corongiu, S. Covino, G. Cusumano, F. D'Amico, S. Dall'Osso, D. de Martino, G. de Paris, G. Di Persio, T. Di Salvo, C. Done, M. Dovčiak, A. Drago, U. Ertan, S. Fabiani, M. Falanga, R. Fender, P. Ferrando, D. della Monica Ferreira, G. Fraser, F. Frontera, F. Fuschino, J. L. Galvez, P. Gandhi, P. Giommi, O. Godet, E. Göǧüş, A. Goldwurm, D. Götz, M. Grassi, P. Guttridge, P. Hakala, G. Henri, W. Hermsen, J. Horak, A. Hornstrup, J. J M in't Zand, J. Isern, E. Kalemci, G. Kanbach, V. Karas, D. Kataria, T. Kennedy, D. Klochkov, W. Kluźniak, K. Kokkotas, I. Kreykenbohm, J. Krolik, L. Kuiper, I. Kuvvetli, N. Kylafis, J. M. Lattimer, F. Lazzarotto, D. Leahy, F. Lebrun, D. Lin, N. Lund, T. Maccarone, J. Malzac, M. Marisaldi, A. Martindale, M. Mastropietro, J. McClintock, I. McHardy, M. Mendez, S. Mereghetti, M. C. Miller, T. Mineo, E. Morelli, S. Morsink, C. Motch, S. Motta, T. Muñoz-Darias, G. Naletto, V. Neustroev, J. Nevalainen, J. F. Olive, M. Orio, M. Orlandini, P. Orleanski, Feryal Ozel, L. Pacciani, S. Paltani, I. Papadakis, A. Papitto, A. Patruno, A. Pellizzoni, V. Petráček, J. Petri, P. O. Petrucci, B. Phlips, L. Picolli, A. Possenti, Dimitrios Psaltis, D. Rambaud, P. Reig, R. Remillard, J. Rodriguez, P. Romano, M. Romanova, T. Schanz, C. Schmid, A. Segreto, A. Shearer, A. Smith, P. J. Smith, P. Soffitta, N. Stergioulas, M. Stolarski, Z. Stuchlik, A. Tiengo, D. Torres, G. Török, R. Turolla, P. Uttley, S. Vaughan, S. Vercellone, R. Waters, A. Watts, R. Wawrzaszek, N. Webb, J. Wilms, L. Zampieri, A. Zezas, J. Ziolkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

163 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High-time-resolution X-ray observations of compact objects provide direct access to strong-field gravity, to the equation of state of ultradense matter and to black hole masses and spins. A 10 m 2-class instrument in combination with good spectral resolution is required to exploit the relevant diagnostics and answer two of the fundamental questions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Cosmic Vision Theme "Matter under extreme conditions", namely: does matter orbiting close to the event horizon follow the predictions of general relativity? What is the equation of state of matter in neutron stars? The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT), selected by ESA as one of the four Cosmic Vision M3 candidate missions to undergo an assessment phase, will revolutionise the study of collapsed objects in our galaxy and of the brightest supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. Thanks to an innovative design and the development of large-area monolithic silicon drift detectors, the Large Area Detector (LAD) on board LOFT will achieve an effective area of ~12 m 2 (more than an order of magnitude larger than any spaceborne predecessor) in the 2-30 keV range (up to 50 keV in expanded mode), yet still fits a conventional platform and small/medium-class launcher. With this large area and a spectral resolution of <260 eV, LOFT will yield unprecedented information on strongly curved spacetimes and matter under extreme conditions of pressure and magnetic field strength.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)415-444
Number of pages30
JournalExperimental Astronomy
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2012

Fingerprint

spectral resolution
equation of state
observatories
observatory
time measurement
pressure field
gravity field
silicon
European Space Agency
x rays
magnetic field
equations of state
prediction
event horizon
launchers
detectors
pressure distribution
active galactic nuclei
neutron stars
relativity

Keywords

  • black holes
  • compact objects
  • Missions
  • neutron stars
  • X-ray timing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Feroci, M., Stella, L., van der Klis, M., Courvoisier, T. J. L., Hernanz, M., Hudec, R., ... Ziolkowski, J. (2012). The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT). Experimental Astronomy, 34(2), 415-444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-011-9237-2

The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT). / Feroci, M.; Stella, L.; van der Klis, M.; Courvoisier, T. J L; Hernanz, M.; Hudec, R.; Santangelo, A.; Walton, D.; Zdziarski, A.; Barret, D.; Belloni, T.; Braga, J.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Campana, S.; den Herder, J. W.; Huovelin, J.; Israel, G. L.; Pohl, M.; Ray, P.; Vacchi, A.; Zane, S.; Argan, A.; Attinà, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bozzo, E.; Campana, R.; Chakrabarty, D.; Costa, E.; de Rosa, A.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cosimo, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Haas, D.; Jonker, P.; Korpela, S.; Labanti, C.; Malcovati, P.; Mignani, R.; Muleri, F.; Rapisarda, M.; Rashevsky, A.; Rea, N.; Rubini, A.; Tenzer, C.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winter, B.; Wood, K.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Alpar, M. A.; Altamirano, D.; Alvarez, J. M.; Amati, L.; Amoros, C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Artigue, R.; Azzarello, P.; Bachetti, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Barbera, M.; Barbieri, C.; Basa, S.; Baykal, A.; Belmont, R.; Boirin, L.; Bonvicini, V.; Burderi, L.; Bursa, M.; Cabanac, C.; Cackett, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Casella, P.; Chaty, S.; Chenevez, J.; Coe, M. J.; Collura, A.; Corongiu, A.; Covino, S.; Cusumano, G.; D'Amico, F.; Dall'Osso, S.; de Martino, D.; de Paris, G.; Di Persio, G.; Di Salvo, T.; Done, C.; Dovčiak, M.; Drago, A.; Ertan, U.; Fabiani, S.; Falanga, M.; Fender, R.; Ferrando, P.; della Monica Ferreira, D.; Fraser, G.; Frontera, F.; Fuschino, F.; Galvez, J. L.; Gandhi, P.; Giommi, P.; Godet, O.; Göǧüş, E.; Goldwurm, A.; Götz, D.; Grassi, M.; Guttridge, P.; Hakala, P.; Henri, G.; Hermsen, W.; Horak, J.; Hornstrup, A.; in't Zand, J. J M; Isern, J.; Kalemci, E.; Kanbach, G.; Karas, V.; Kataria, D.; Kennedy, T.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kokkotas, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Krolik, J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuvvetli, I.; Kylafis, N.; Lattimer, J. M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Leahy, D.; Lebrun, F.; Lin, D.; Lund, N.; Maccarone, T.; Malzac, J.; Marisaldi, M.; Martindale, A.; Mastropietro, M.; McClintock, J.; McHardy, I.; Mendez, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Miller, M. C.; Mineo, T.; Morelli, E.; Morsink, S.; Motch, C.; Motta, S.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Naletto, G.; Neustroev, V.; Nevalainen, J.; Olive, J. F.; Orio, M.; Orlandini, M.; Orleanski, P.; Ozel, Feryal; Pacciani, L.; Paltani, S.; Papadakis, I.; Papitto, A.; Patruno, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Petráček, V.; Petri, J.; Petrucci, P. O.; Phlips, B.; Picolli, L.; Possenti, A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Rambaud, D.; Reig, P.; Remillard, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Romano, P.; Romanova, M.; Schanz, T.; Schmid, C.; Segreto, A.; Shearer, A.; Smith, A.; Smith, P. J.; Soffitta, P.; Stergioulas, N.; Stolarski, M.; Stuchlik, Z.; Tiengo, A.; Torres, D.; Török, G.; Turolla, R.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vercellone, S.; Waters, R.; Watts, A.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wilms, J.; Zampieri, L.; Zezas, A.; Ziolkowski, J.

In: Experimental Astronomy, Vol. 34, No. 2, 10.2012, p. 415-444.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Feroci, M, Stella, L, van der Klis, M, Courvoisier, TJL, Hernanz, M, Hudec, R, Santangelo, A, Walton, D, Zdziarski, A, Barret, D, Belloni, T, Braga, J, Brandt, S, Budtz-Jørgensen, C, Campana, S, den Herder, JW, Huovelin, J, Israel, GL, Pohl, M, Ray, P, Vacchi, A, Zane, S, Argan, A, Attinà, P, Bertuccio, G, Bozzo, E, Campana, R, Chakrabarty, D, Costa, E, de Rosa, A, Del Monte, E, Di Cosimo, S, Donnarumma, I, Evangelista, Y, Haas, D, Jonker, P, Korpela, S, Labanti, C, Malcovati, P, Mignani, R, Muleri, F, Rapisarda, M, Rashevsky, A, Rea, N, Rubini, A, Tenzer, C, Wilson-Hodge, C, Winter, B, Wood, K, Zampa, G, Zampa, N, Abramowicz, MA, Alpar, MA, Altamirano, D, Alvarez, JM, Amati, L, Amoros, C, Antonelli, LA, Artigue, R, Azzarello, P, Bachetti, M, Baldazzi, G, Barbera, M, Barbieri, C, Basa, S, Baykal, A, Belmont, R, Boirin, L, Bonvicini, V, Burderi, L, Bursa, M, Cabanac, C, Cackett, E, Caliandro, GA, Casella, P, Chaty, S, Chenevez, J, Coe, MJ, Collura, A, Corongiu, A, Covino, S, Cusumano, G, D'Amico, F, Dall'Osso, S, de Martino, D, de Paris, G, Di Persio, G, Di Salvo, T, Done, C, Dovčiak, M, Drago, A, Ertan, U, Fabiani, S, Falanga, M, Fender, R, Ferrando, P, della Monica Ferreira, D, Fraser, G, Frontera, F, Fuschino, F, Galvez, JL, Gandhi, P, Giommi, P, Godet, O, Göǧüş, E, Goldwurm, A, Götz, D, Grassi, M, Guttridge, P, Hakala, P, Henri, G, Hermsen, W, Horak, J, Hornstrup, A, in't Zand, JJM, Isern, J, Kalemci, E, Kanbach, G, Karas, V, Kataria, D, Kennedy, T, Klochkov, D, Kluźniak, W, Kokkotas, K, Kreykenbohm, I, Krolik, J, Kuiper, L, Kuvvetli, I, Kylafis, N, Lattimer, JM, Lazzarotto, F, Leahy, D, Lebrun, F, Lin, D, Lund, N, Maccarone, T, Malzac, J, Marisaldi, M, Martindale, A, Mastropietro, M, McClintock, J, McHardy, I, Mendez, M, Mereghetti, S, Miller, MC, Mineo, T, Morelli, E, Morsink, S, Motch, C, Motta, S, Muñoz-Darias, T, Naletto, G, Neustroev, V, Nevalainen, J, Olive, JF, Orio, M, Orlandini, M, Orleanski, P, Ozel, F, Pacciani, L, Paltani, S, Papadakis, I, Papitto, A, Patruno, A, Pellizzoni, A, Petráček, V, Petri, J, Petrucci, PO, Phlips, B, Picolli, L, Possenti, A, Psaltis, D, Rambaud, D, Reig, P, Remillard, R, Rodriguez, J, Romano, P, Romanova, M, Schanz, T, Schmid, C, Segreto, A, Shearer, A, Smith, A, Smith, PJ, Soffitta, P, Stergioulas, N, Stolarski, M, Stuchlik, Z, Tiengo, A, Torres, D, Török, G, Turolla, R, Uttley, P, Vaughan, S, Vercellone, S, Waters, R, Watts, A, Wawrzaszek, R, Webb, N, Wilms, J, Zampieri, L, Zezas, A & Ziolkowski, J 2012, 'The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT)', Experimental Astronomy, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 415-444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-011-9237-2
Feroci M, Stella L, van der Klis M, Courvoisier TJL, Hernanz M, Hudec R et al. The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT). Experimental Astronomy. 2012 Oct;34(2):415-444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-011-9237-2
Feroci, M. ; Stella, L. ; van der Klis, M. ; Courvoisier, T. J L ; Hernanz, M. ; Hudec, R. ; Santangelo, A. ; Walton, D. ; Zdziarski, A. ; Barret, D. ; Belloni, T. ; Braga, J. ; Brandt, S. ; Budtz-Jørgensen, C. ; Campana, S. ; den Herder, J. W. ; Huovelin, J. ; Israel, G. L. ; Pohl, M. ; Ray, P. ; Vacchi, A. ; Zane, S. ; Argan, A. ; Attinà, P. ; Bertuccio, G. ; Bozzo, E. ; Campana, R. ; Chakrabarty, D. ; Costa, E. ; de Rosa, A. ; Del Monte, E. ; Di Cosimo, S. ; Donnarumma, I. ; Evangelista, Y. ; Haas, D. ; Jonker, P. ; Korpela, S. ; Labanti, C. ; Malcovati, P. ; Mignani, R. ; Muleri, F. ; Rapisarda, M. ; Rashevsky, A. ; Rea, N. ; Rubini, A. ; Tenzer, C. ; Wilson-Hodge, C. ; Winter, B. ; Wood, K. ; Zampa, G. ; Zampa, N. ; Abramowicz, M. A. ; Alpar, M. A. ; Altamirano, D. ; Alvarez, J. M. ; Amati, L. ; Amoros, C. ; Antonelli, L. A. ; Artigue, R. ; Azzarello, P. ; Bachetti, M. ; Baldazzi, G. ; Barbera, M. ; Barbieri, C. ; Basa, S. ; Baykal, A. ; Belmont, R. ; Boirin, L. ; Bonvicini, V. ; Burderi, L. ; Bursa, M. ; Cabanac, C. ; Cackett, E. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Casella, P. ; Chaty, S. ; Chenevez, J. ; Coe, M. J. ; Collura, A. ; Corongiu, A. ; Covino, S. ; Cusumano, G. ; D'Amico, F. ; Dall'Osso, S. ; de Martino, D. ; de Paris, G. ; Di Persio, G. ; Di Salvo, T. ; Done, C. ; Dovčiak, M. ; Drago, A. ; Ertan, U. ; Fabiani, S. ; Falanga, M. ; Fender, R. ; Ferrando, P. ; della Monica Ferreira, D. ; Fraser, G. ; Frontera, F. ; Fuschino, F. ; Galvez, J. L. ; Gandhi, P. ; Giommi, P. ; Godet, O. ; Göǧüş, E. ; Goldwurm, A. ; Götz, D. ; Grassi, M. ; Guttridge, P. ; Hakala, P. ; Henri, G. ; Hermsen, W. ; Horak, J. ; Hornstrup, A. ; in't Zand, J. J M ; Isern, J. ; Kalemci, E. ; Kanbach, G. ; Karas, V. ; Kataria, D. ; Kennedy, T. ; Klochkov, D. ; Kluźniak, W. ; Kokkotas, K. ; Kreykenbohm, I. ; Krolik, J. ; Kuiper, L. ; Kuvvetli, I. ; Kylafis, N. ; Lattimer, J. M. ; Lazzarotto, F. ; Leahy, D. ; Lebrun, F. ; Lin, D. ; Lund, N. ; Maccarone, T. ; Malzac, J. ; Marisaldi, M. ; Martindale, A. ; Mastropietro, M. ; McClintock, J. ; McHardy, I. ; Mendez, M. ; Mereghetti, S. ; Miller, M. C. ; Mineo, T. ; Morelli, E. ; Morsink, S. ; Motch, C. ; Motta, S. ; Muñoz-Darias, T. ; Naletto, G. ; Neustroev, V. ; Nevalainen, J. ; Olive, J. F. ; Orio, M. ; Orlandini, M. ; Orleanski, P. ; Ozel, Feryal ; Pacciani, L. ; Paltani, S. ; Papadakis, I. ; Papitto, A. ; Patruno, A. ; Pellizzoni, A. ; Petráček, V. ; Petri, J. ; Petrucci, P. O. ; Phlips, B. ; Picolli, L. ; Possenti, A. ; Psaltis, Dimitrios ; Rambaud, D. ; Reig, P. ; Remillard, R. ; Rodriguez, J. ; Romano, P. ; Romanova, M. ; Schanz, T. ; Schmid, C. ; Segreto, A. ; Shearer, A. ; Smith, A. ; Smith, P. J. ; Soffitta, P. ; Stergioulas, N. ; Stolarski, M. ; Stuchlik, Z. ; Tiengo, A. ; Torres, D. ; Török, G. ; Turolla, R. ; Uttley, P. ; Vaughan, S. ; Vercellone, S. ; Waters, R. ; Watts, A. ; Wawrzaszek, R. ; Webb, N. ; Wilms, J. ; Zampieri, L. ; Zezas, A. ; Ziolkowski, J. / The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT). In: Experimental Astronomy. 2012 ; Vol. 34, No. 2. pp. 415-444.
@article{eea4db158ecd401a81cc8983d323b618,
title = "The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT)",
abstract = "High-time-resolution X-ray observations of compact objects provide direct access to strong-field gravity, to the equation of state of ultradense matter and to black hole masses and spins. A 10 m 2-class instrument in combination with good spectral resolution is required to exploit the relevant diagnostics and answer two of the fundamental questions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Cosmic Vision Theme {"}Matter under extreme conditions{"}, namely: does matter orbiting close to the event horizon follow the predictions of general relativity? What is the equation of state of matter in neutron stars? The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT), selected by ESA as one of the four Cosmic Vision M3 candidate missions to undergo an assessment phase, will revolutionise the study of collapsed objects in our galaxy and of the brightest supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. Thanks to an innovative design and the development of large-area monolithic silicon drift detectors, the Large Area Detector (LAD) on board LOFT will achieve an effective area of ~12 m 2 (more than an order of magnitude larger than any spaceborne predecessor) in the 2-30 keV range (up to 50 keV in expanded mode), yet still fits a conventional platform and small/medium-class launcher. With this large area and a spectral resolution of <260 eV, LOFT will yield unprecedented information on strongly curved spacetimes and matter under extreme conditions of pressure and magnetic field strength.",
keywords = "black holes, compact objects, Missions, neutron stars, X-ray timing",
author = "M. Feroci and L. Stella and {van der Klis}, M. and Courvoisier, {T. J L} and M. Hernanz and R. Hudec and A. Santangelo and D. Walton and A. Zdziarski and D. Barret and T. Belloni and J. Braga and S. Brandt and C. Budtz-J{\o}rgensen and S. Campana and {den Herder}, {J. W.} and J. Huovelin and Israel, {G. L.} and M. Pohl and P. Ray and A. Vacchi and S. Zane and A. Argan and P. Attin{\`a} and G. Bertuccio and E. Bozzo and R. Campana and D. Chakrabarty and E. Costa and {de Rosa}, A. and {Del Monte}, E. and {Di Cosimo}, S. and I. Donnarumma and Y. Evangelista and D. Haas and P. Jonker and S. Korpela and C. Labanti and P. Malcovati and R. Mignani and F. Muleri and M. Rapisarda and A. Rashevsky and N. Rea and A. Rubini and C. Tenzer and C. Wilson-Hodge and B. Winter and K. Wood and G. Zampa and N. Zampa and Abramowicz, {M. A.} and Alpar, {M. A.} and D. Altamirano and Alvarez, {J. M.} and L. Amati and C. Amoros and Antonelli, {L. A.} and R. Artigue and P. Azzarello and M. Bachetti and G. Baldazzi and M. Barbera and C. Barbieri and S. Basa and A. Baykal and R. Belmont and L. Boirin and V. Bonvicini and L. Burderi and M. Bursa and C. Cabanac and E. Cackett and Caliandro, {G. A.} and P. Casella and S. Chaty and J. Chenevez and Coe, {M. J.} and A. Collura and A. Corongiu and S. Covino and G. Cusumano and F. D'Amico and S. Dall'Osso and {de Martino}, D. and {de Paris}, G. and {Di Persio}, G. and {Di Salvo}, T. and C. Done and M. Dovčiak and A. Drago and U. Ertan and S. Fabiani and M. Falanga and R. Fender and P. Ferrando and {della Monica Ferreira}, D. and G. Fraser and F. Frontera and F. Fuschino and Galvez, {J. L.} and P. Gandhi and P. Giommi and O. Godet and E. G{\"o}ǧ{\"u}ş and A. Goldwurm and D. G{\"o}tz and M. Grassi and P. Guttridge and P. Hakala and G. Henri and W. Hermsen and J. Horak and A. Hornstrup and {in't Zand}, {J. J M} and J. Isern and E. Kalemci and G. Kanbach and V. Karas and D. Kataria and T. Kennedy and D. Klochkov and W. Kluźniak and K. Kokkotas and I. Kreykenbohm and J. Krolik and L. Kuiper and I. Kuvvetli and N. Kylafis and Lattimer, {J. M.} and F. Lazzarotto and D. Leahy and F. Lebrun and D. Lin and N. Lund and T. Maccarone and J. Malzac and M. Marisaldi and A. Martindale and M. Mastropietro and J. McClintock and I. McHardy and M. Mendez and S. Mereghetti and Miller, {M. C.} and T. Mineo and E. Morelli and S. Morsink and C. Motch and S. Motta and T. Mu{\~n}oz-Darias and G. Naletto and V. Neustroev and J. Nevalainen and Olive, {J. F.} and M. Orio and M. Orlandini and P. Orleanski and Feryal Ozel and L. Pacciani and S. Paltani and I. Papadakis and A. Papitto and A. Patruno and A. Pellizzoni and V. Petr{\'a}ček and J. Petri and Petrucci, {P. O.} and B. Phlips and L. Picolli and A. Possenti and Dimitrios Psaltis and D. Rambaud and P. Reig and R. Remillard and J. Rodriguez and P. Romano and M. Romanova and T. Schanz and C. Schmid and A. Segreto and A. Shearer and A. Smith and Smith, {P. J.} and P. Soffitta and N. Stergioulas and M. Stolarski and Z. Stuchlik and A. Tiengo and D. Torres and G. T{\"o}r{\"o}k and R. Turolla and P. Uttley and S. Vaughan and S. Vercellone and R. Waters and A. Watts and R. Wawrzaszek and N. Webb and J. Wilms and L. Zampieri and A. Zezas and J. Ziolkowski",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1007/s10686-011-9237-2",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "34",
pages = "415--444",
journal = "Experimental Astronomy",
issn = "0922-6435",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT)

AU - Feroci, M.

AU - Stella, L.

AU - van der Klis, M.

AU - Courvoisier, T. J L

AU - Hernanz, M.

AU - Hudec, R.

AU - Santangelo, A.

AU - Walton, D.

AU - Zdziarski, A.

AU - Barret, D.

AU - Belloni, T.

AU - Braga, J.

AU - Brandt, S.

AU - Budtz-Jørgensen, C.

AU - Campana, S.

AU - den Herder, J. W.

AU - Huovelin, J.

AU - Israel, G. L.

AU - Pohl, M.

AU - Ray, P.

AU - Vacchi, A.

AU - Zane, S.

AU - Argan, A.

AU - Attinà, P.

AU - Bertuccio, G.

AU - Bozzo, E.

AU - Campana, R.

AU - Chakrabarty, D.

AU - Costa, E.

AU - de Rosa, A.

AU - Del Monte, E.

AU - Di Cosimo, S.

AU - Donnarumma, I.

AU - Evangelista, Y.

AU - Haas, D.

AU - Jonker, P.

AU - Korpela, S.

AU - Labanti, C.

AU - Malcovati, P.

AU - Mignani, R.

AU - Muleri, F.

AU - Rapisarda, M.

AU - Rashevsky, A.

AU - Rea, N.

AU - Rubini, A.

AU - Tenzer, C.

AU - Wilson-Hodge, C.

AU - Winter, B.

AU - Wood, K.

AU - Zampa, G.

AU - Zampa, N.

AU - Abramowicz, M. A.

AU - Alpar, M. A.

AU - Altamirano, D.

AU - Alvarez, J. M.

AU - Amati, L.

AU - Amoros, C.

AU - Antonelli, L. A.

AU - Artigue, R.

AU - Azzarello, P.

AU - Bachetti, M.

AU - Baldazzi, G.

AU - Barbera, M.

AU - Barbieri, C.

AU - Basa, S.

AU - Baykal, A.

AU - Belmont, R.

AU - Boirin, L.

AU - Bonvicini, V.

AU - Burderi, L.

AU - Bursa, M.

AU - Cabanac, C.

AU - Cackett, E.

AU - Caliandro, G. A.

AU - Casella, P.

AU - Chaty, S.

AU - Chenevez, J.

AU - Coe, M. J.

AU - Collura, A.

AU - Corongiu, A.

AU - Covino, S.

AU - Cusumano, G.

AU - D'Amico, F.

AU - Dall'Osso, S.

AU - de Martino, D.

AU - de Paris, G.

AU - Di Persio, G.

AU - Di Salvo, T.

AU - Done, C.

AU - Dovčiak, M.

AU - Drago, A.

AU - Ertan, U.

AU - Fabiani, S.

AU - Falanga, M.

AU - Fender, R.

AU - Ferrando, P.

AU - della Monica Ferreira, D.

AU - Fraser, G.

AU - Frontera, F.

AU - Fuschino, F.

AU - Galvez, J. L.

AU - Gandhi, P.

AU - Giommi, P.

AU - Godet, O.

AU - Göǧüş, E.

AU - Goldwurm, A.

AU - Götz, D.

AU - Grassi, M.

AU - Guttridge, P.

AU - Hakala, P.

AU - Henri, G.

AU - Hermsen, W.

AU - Horak, J.

AU - Hornstrup, A.

AU - in't Zand, J. J M

AU - Isern, J.

AU - Kalemci, E.

AU - Kanbach, G.

AU - Karas, V.

AU - Kataria, D.

AU - Kennedy, T.

AU - Klochkov, D.

AU - Kluźniak, W.

AU - Kokkotas, K.

AU - Kreykenbohm, I.

AU - Krolik, J.

AU - Kuiper, L.

AU - Kuvvetli, I.

AU - Kylafis, N.

AU - Lattimer, J. M.

AU - Lazzarotto, F.

AU - Leahy, D.

AU - Lebrun, F.

AU - Lin, D.

AU - Lund, N.

AU - Maccarone, T.

AU - Malzac, J.

AU - Marisaldi, M.

AU - Martindale, A.

AU - Mastropietro, M.

AU - McClintock, J.

AU - McHardy, I.

AU - Mendez, M.

AU - Mereghetti, S.

AU - Miller, M. C.

AU - Mineo, T.

AU - Morelli, E.

AU - Morsink, S.

AU - Motch, C.

AU - Motta, S.

AU - Muñoz-Darias, T.

AU - Naletto, G.

AU - Neustroev, V.

AU - Nevalainen, J.

AU - Olive, J. F.

AU - Orio, M.

AU - Orlandini, M.

AU - Orleanski, P.

AU - Ozel, Feryal

AU - Pacciani, L.

AU - Paltani, S.

AU - Papadakis, I.

AU - Papitto, A.

AU - Patruno, A.

AU - Pellizzoni, A.

AU - Petráček, V.

AU - Petri, J.

AU - Petrucci, P. O.

AU - Phlips, B.

AU - Picolli, L.

AU - Possenti, A.

AU - Psaltis, Dimitrios

AU - Rambaud, D.

AU - Reig, P.

AU - Remillard, R.

AU - Rodriguez, J.

AU - Romano, P.

AU - Romanova, M.

AU - Schanz, T.

AU - Schmid, C.

AU - Segreto, A.

AU - Shearer, A.

AU - Smith, A.

AU - Smith, P. J.

AU - Soffitta, P.

AU - Stergioulas, N.

AU - Stolarski, M.

AU - Stuchlik, Z.

AU - Tiengo, A.

AU - Torres, D.

AU - Török, G.

AU - Turolla, R.

AU - Uttley, P.

AU - Vaughan, S.

AU - Vercellone, S.

AU - Waters, R.

AU - Watts, A.

AU - Wawrzaszek, R.

AU - Webb, N.

AU - Wilms, J.

AU - Zampieri, L.

AU - Zezas, A.

AU - Ziolkowski, J.

PY - 2012/10

Y1 - 2012/10

N2 - High-time-resolution X-ray observations of compact objects provide direct access to strong-field gravity, to the equation of state of ultradense matter and to black hole masses and spins. A 10 m 2-class instrument in combination with good spectral resolution is required to exploit the relevant diagnostics and answer two of the fundamental questions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Cosmic Vision Theme "Matter under extreme conditions", namely: does matter orbiting close to the event horizon follow the predictions of general relativity? What is the equation of state of matter in neutron stars? The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT), selected by ESA as one of the four Cosmic Vision M3 candidate missions to undergo an assessment phase, will revolutionise the study of collapsed objects in our galaxy and of the brightest supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. Thanks to an innovative design and the development of large-area monolithic silicon drift detectors, the Large Area Detector (LAD) on board LOFT will achieve an effective area of ~12 m 2 (more than an order of magnitude larger than any spaceborne predecessor) in the 2-30 keV range (up to 50 keV in expanded mode), yet still fits a conventional platform and small/medium-class launcher. With this large area and a spectral resolution of <260 eV, LOFT will yield unprecedented information on strongly curved spacetimes and matter under extreme conditions of pressure and magnetic field strength.

AB - High-time-resolution X-ray observations of compact objects provide direct access to strong-field gravity, to the equation of state of ultradense matter and to black hole masses and spins. A 10 m 2-class instrument in combination with good spectral resolution is required to exploit the relevant diagnostics and answer two of the fundamental questions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Cosmic Vision Theme "Matter under extreme conditions", namely: does matter orbiting close to the event horizon follow the predictions of general relativity? What is the equation of state of matter in neutron stars? The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT), selected by ESA as one of the four Cosmic Vision M3 candidate missions to undergo an assessment phase, will revolutionise the study of collapsed objects in our galaxy and of the brightest supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. Thanks to an innovative design and the development of large-area monolithic silicon drift detectors, the Large Area Detector (LAD) on board LOFT will achieve an effective area of ~12 m 2 (more than an order of magnitude larger than any spaceborne predecessor) in the 2-30 keV range (up to 50 keV in expanded mode), yet still fits a conventional platform and small/medium-class launcher. With this large area and a spectral resolution of <260 eV, LOFT will yield unprecedented information on strongly curved spacetimes and matter under extreme conditions of pressure and magnetic field strength.

KW - black holes

KW - compact objects

KW - Missions

KW - neutron stars

KW - X-ray timing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84866887519&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84866887519&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10686-011-9237-2

DO - 10.1007/s10686-011-9237-2

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 415

EP - 444

JO - Experimental Astronomy

JF - Experimental Astronomy

SN - 0922-6435

IS - 2

ER -