The luminosity function of early-type field galaxies at z ≈ 0.75

N. J G Cross, R. J. Bouwens, N. Benítez, J. P. Blakeslee, F. Menanteau, H. C. Ford, T. Goto, B. Holden, A. R. Martel, A. Zirm, R. Overzier, C. Gronwall, N. Homeier, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, G. D. Illingworth, D. R. Ardila, F. Bartko, T. J. Broadhurst, R. A. BrownC. J. Burrows, E. S. Cheng, P. D. Feldman, M. Franx, D. A. Golimowski, L. Infante, R. A. Kimble, J. E. Krist, Michael P Lesser, G. R. Meurer, G. K. Miley, M. Postman, P. Rosati, M. Sirianni, W. B. Sparks, H. D. Tran, Z. I. Tsvetanov, R. L. White, W. Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We measure the luminosity function of morphologically selected E/S0 galaxies from z = 0.5 to 1.0 using deep high-resolution Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data. Our analysis covers an area of 48 arcmin 2 (8 times the area of the Hubble Deep Field North) and extends 2 mag deeper (I ∼ 24 mag) than was possible in the Deep Groth Strip Survey (DGSS). Our fields were observed as part of the ACS Guaranteed Time Observations. At 0.5 < z < 0.75, we find M B* - 5 log h 0.7 = -21.1 ± 0.3 and α = -0.53 ± 0.2, and at 0.75 < z < 1.0, we find M B* - 5 log h 0.7 = -21.4 ± 0.2, consistent with 0.3 mag of luminosity evolution (across our two redshift intervals). These luminosity functions are similar in both shape and number density to the luminosity function using morphological selection (e.g., DGSS), but are much steeper than the luminosity functions of samples selected using morphological proxies such as the color or spectral energy distribution (e.g., CFRS, CADIS, or COMBO-17). The difference is due to the "blue," (U -V) 0 < 1.7, E/S0 galaxies, which make up to ∼30% of the sample at all magnitudes and an increasing proportion of faint galaxies. We thereby demonstrate the need for both morphological and structural information to constrain the evolution of galaxies. We find that the blue E/S0 galaxies have the same average sizes and Sersic parameters as the "red," (U - V) 0 > 1.7, E/S0 galaxies at brighter luminosities (M B < -20.1), but are increasingly different at fainter magnitudes, where blue galaxies are both smaller and have lower Sersic parameters. We find differences in both the size-magnitude relation and the photometric plane offset for red and blue E/S0s, although neither red nor blue galaxies give a good fit to the size-magnitude relation. Fits of the colors to stellar population models suggest that most E/S0 galaxies have short star formation timescales (τ < 1 Gyr), and that galaxies have formed at an increasing rate from z ∼ 8 until z ∼ 2, after which there has been a gradual decline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1990-2012
Number of pages23
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume128
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2004

Fingerprint

luminosity
galaxies
cameras
timescale
star formation
strip
color
high resolution
analysis
rate
parameter

Keywords

  • Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD
  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: fundamental parameters
  • Galaxies: luminosity function, mass function

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Cross, N. J. G., Bouwens, R. J., Benítez, N., Blakeslee, J. P., Menanteau, F., Ford, H. C., ... Zheng, W. (2004). The luminosity function of early-type field galaxies at z ≈ 0.75. Astronomical Journal, 128(5), 1990-2012. https://doi.org/10.1086/424857

The luminosity function of early-type field galaxies at z ≈ 0.75. / Cross, N. J G; Bouwens, R. J.; Benítez, N.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Menanteau, F.; Ford, H. C.; Goto, T.; Holden, B.; Martel, A. R.; Zirm, A.; Overzier, R.; Gronwall, C.; Homeier, N.; Clampin, M.; Hartig, G. F.; Illingworth, G. D.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Feldman, P. D.; Franx, M.; Golimowski, D. A.; Infante, L.; Kimble, R. A.; Krist, J. E.; Lesser, Michael P; Meurer, G. R.; Miley, G. K.; Postman, M.; Rosati, P.; Sirianni, M.; Sparks, W. B.; Tran, H. D.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 128, No. 5, 11.2004, p. 1990-2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cross, NJG, Bouwens, RJ, Benítez, N, Blakeslee, JP, Menanteau, F, Ford, HC, Goto, T, Holden, B, Martel, AR, Zirm, A, Overzier, R, Gronwall, C, Homeier, N, Clampin, M, Hartig, GF, Illingworth, GD, Ardila, DR, Bartko, F, Broadhurst, TJ, Brown, RA, Burrows, CJ, Cheng, ES, Feldman, PD, Franx, M, Golimowski, DA, Infante, L, Kimble, RA, Krist, JE, Lesser, MP, Meurer, GR, Miley, GK, Postman, M, Rosati, P, Sirianni, M, Sparks, WB, Tran, HD, Tsvetanov, ZI, White, RL & Zheng, W 2004, 'The luminosity function of early-type field galaxies at z ≈ 0.75', Astronomical Journal, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 1990-2012. https://doi.org/10.1086/424857
Cross NJG, Bouwens RJ, Benítez N, Blakeslee JP, Menanteau F, Ford HC et al. The luminosity function of early-type field galaxies at z ≈ 0.75. Astronomical Journal. 2004 Nov;128(5):1990-2012. https://doi.org/10.1086/424857
Cross, N. J G ; Bouwens, R. J. ; Benítez, N. ; Blakeslee, J. P. ; Menanteau, F. ; Ford, H. C. ; Goto, T. ; Holden, B. ; Martel, A. R. ; Zirm, A. ; Overzier, R. ; Gronwall, C. ; Homeier, N. ; Clampin, M. ; Hartig, G. F. ; Illingworth, G. D. ; Ardila, D. R. ; Bartko, F. ; Broadhurst, T. J. ; Brown, R. A. ; Burrows, C. J. ; Cheng, E. S. ; Feldman, P. D. ; Franx, M. ; Golimowski, D. A. ; Infante, L. ; Kimble, R. A. ; Krist, J. E. ; Lesser, Michael P ; Meurer, G. R. ; Miley, G. K. ; Postman, M. ; Rosati, P. ; Sirianni, M. ; Sparks, W. B. ; Tran, H. D. ; Tsvetanov, Z. I. ; White, R. L. ; Zheng, W. / The luminosity function of early-type field galaxies at z ≈ 0.75. In: Astronomical Journal. 2004 ; Vol. 128, No. 5. pp. 1990-2012.
@article{987fd71edfc743e5a8866ed5f2331139,
title = "The luminosity function of early-type field galaxies at z ≈ 0.75",
abstract = "We measure the luminosity function of morphologically selected E/S0 galaxies from z = 0.5 to 1.0 using deep high-resolution Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data. Our analysis covers an area of 48 arcmin 2 (8 times the area of the Hubble Deep Field North) and extends 2 mag deeper (I ∼ 24 mag) than was possible in the Deep Groth Strip Survey (DGSS). Our fields were observed as part of the ACS Guaranteed Time Observations. At 0.5 < z < 0.75, we find M B* - 5 log h 0.7 = -21.1 ± 0.3 and α = -0.53 ± 0.2, and at 0.75 < z < 1.0, we find M B* - 5 log h 0.7 = -21.4 ± 0.2, consistent with 0.3 mag of luminosity evolution (across our two redshift intervals). These luminosity functions are similar in both shape and number density to the luminosity function using morphological selection (e.g., DGSS), but are much steeper than the luminosity functions of samples selected using morphological proxies such as the color or spectral energy distribution (e.g., CFRS, CADIS, or COMBO-17). The difference is due to the {"}blue,{"} (U -V) 0 < 1.7, E/S0 galaxies, which make up to ∼30{\%} of the sample at all magnitudes and an increasing proportion of faint galaxies. We thereby demonstrate the need for both morphological and structural information to constrain the evolution of galaxies. We find that the blue E/S0 galaxies have the same average sizes and Sersic parameters as the {"}red,{"} (U - V) 0 > 1.7, E/S0 galaxies at brighter luminosities (M B < -20.1), but are increasingly different at fainter magnitudes, where blue galaxies are both smaller and have lower Sersic parameters. We find differences in both the size-magnitude relation and the photometric plane offset for red and blue E/S0s, although neither red nor blue galaxies give a good fit to the size-magnitude relation. Fits of the colors to stellar population models suggest that most E/S0 galaxies have short star formation timescales (τ < 1 Gyr), and that galaxies have formed at an increasing rate from z ∼ 8 until z ∼ 2, after which there has been a gradual decline.",
keywords = "Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD, Galaxies: evolution, Galaxies: fundamental parameters, Galaxies: luminosity function, mass function",
author = "Cross, {N. J G} and Bouwens, {R. J.} and N. Ben{\'i}tez and Blakeslee, {J. P.} and F. Menanteau and Ford, {H. C.} and T. Goto and B. Holden and Martel, {A. R.} and A. Zirm and R. Overzier and C. Gronwall and N. Homeier and M. Clampin and Hartig, {G. F.} and Illingworth, {G. D.} and Ardila, {D. R.} and F. Bartko and Broadhurst, {T. J.} and Brown, {R. A.} and Burrows, {C. J.} and Cheng, {E. S.} and Feldman, {P. D.} and M. Franx and Golimowski, {D. A.} and L. Infante and Kimble, {R. A.} and Krist, {J. E.} and Lesser, {Michael P} and Meurer, {G. R.} and Miley, {G. K.} and M. Postman and P. Rosati and M. Sirianni and Sparks, {W. B.} and Tran, {H. D.} and Tsvetanov, {Z. I.} and White, {R. L.} and W. Zheng",
year = "2004",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1086/424857",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "128",
pages = "1990--2012",
journal = "Astronomical Journal",
issn = "0004-6256",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The luminosity function of early-type field galaxies at z ≈ 0.75

AU - Cross, N. J G

AU - Bouwens, R. J.

AU - Benítez, N.

AU - Blakeslee, J. P.

AU - Menanteau, F.

AU - Ford, H. C.

AU - Goto, T.

AU - Holden, B.

AU - Martel, A. R.

AU - Zirm, A.

AU - Overzier, R.

AU - Gronwall, C.

AU - Homeier, N.

AU - Clampin, M.

AU - Hartig, G. F.

AU - Illingworth, G. D.

AU - Ardila, D. R.

AU - Bartko, F.

AU - Broadhurst, T. J.

AU - Brown, R. A.

AU - Burrows, C. J.

AU - Cheng, E. S.

AU - Feldman, P. D.

AU - Franx, M.

AU - Golimowski, D. A.

AU - Infante, L.

AU - Kimble, R. A.

AU - Krist, J. E.

AU - Lesser, Michael P

AU - Meurer, G. R.

AU - Miley, G. K.

AU - Postman, M.

AU - Rosati, P.

AU - Sirianni, M.

AU - Sparks, W. B.

AU - Tran, H. D.

AU - Tsvetanov, Z. I.

AU - White, R. L.

AU - Zheng, W.

PY - 2004/11

Y1 - 2004/11

N2 - We measure the luminosity function of morphologically selected E/S0 galaxies from z = 0.5 to 1.0 using deep high-resolution Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data. Our analysis covers an area of 48 arcmin 2 (8 times the area of the Hubble Deep Field North) and extends 2 mag deeper (I ∼ 24 mag) than was possible in the Deep Groth Strip Survey (DGSS). Our fields were observed as part of the ACS Guaranteed Time Observations. At 0.5 < z < 0.75, we find M B* - 5 log h 0.7 = -21.1 ± 0.3 and α = -0.53 ± 0.2, and at 0.75 < z < 1.0, we find M B* - 5 log h 0.7 = -21.4 ± 0.2, consistent with 0.3 mag of luminosity evolution (across our two redshift intervals). These luminosity functions are similar in both shape and number density to the luminosity function using morphological selection (e.g., DGSS), but are much steeper than the luminosity functions of samples selected using morphological proxies such as the color or spectral energy distribution (e.g., CFRS, CADIS, or COMBO-17). The difference is due to the "blue," (U -V) 0 < 1.7, E/S0 galaxies, which make up to ∼30% of the sample at all magnitudes and an increasing proportion of faint galaxies. We thereby demonstrate the need for both morphological and structural information to constrain the evolution of galaxies. We find that the blue E/S0 galaxies have the same average sizes and Sersic parameters as the "red," (U - V) 0 > 1.7, E/S0 galaxies at brighter luminosities (M B < -20.1), but are increasingly different at fainter magnitudes, where blue galaxies are both smaller and have lower Sersic parameters. We find differences in both the size-magnitude relation and the photometric plane offset for red and blue E/S0s, although neither red nor blue galaxies give a good fit to the size-magnitude relation. Fits of the colors to stellar population models suggest that most E/S0 galaxies have short star formation timescales (τ < 1 Gyr), and that galaxies have formed at an increasing rate from z ∼ 8 until z ∼ 2, after which there has been a gradual decline.

AB - We measure the luminosity function of morphologically selected E/S0 galaxies from z = 0.5 to 1.0 using deep high-resolution Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data. Our analysis covers an area of 48 arcmin 2 (8 times the area of the Hubble Deep Field North) and extends 2 mag deeper (I ∼ 24 mag) than was possible in the Deep Groth Strip Survey (DGSS). Our fields were observed as part of the ACS Guaranteed Time Observations. At 0.5 < z < 0.75, we find M B* - 5 log h 0.7 = -21.1 ± 0.3 and α = -0.53 ± 0.2, and at 0.75 < z < 1.0, we find M B* - 5 log h 0.7 = -21.4 ± 0.2, consistent with 0.3 mag of luminosity evolution (across our two redshift intervals). These luminosity functions are similar in both shape and number density to the luminosity function using morphological selection (e.g., DGSS), but are much steeper than the luminosity functions of samples selected using morphological proxies such as the color or spectral energy distribution (e.g., CFRS, CADIS, or COMBO-17). The difference is due to the "blue," (U -V) 0 < 1.7, E/S0 galaxies, which make up to ∼30% of the sample at all magnitudes and an increasing proportion of faint galaxies. We thereby demonstrate the need for both morphological and structural information to constrain the evolution of galaxies. We find that the blue E/S0 galaxies have the same average sizes and Sersic parameters as the "red," (U - V) 0 > 1.7, E/S0 galaxies at brighter luminosities (M B < -20.1), but are increasingly different at fainter magnitudes, where blue galaxies are both smaller and have lower Sersic parameters. We find differences in both the size-magnitude relation and the photometric plane offset for red and blue E/S0s, although neither red nor blue galaxies give a good fit to the size-magnitude relation. Fits of the colors to stellar population models suggest that most E/S0 galaxies have short star formation timescales (τ < 1 Gyr), and that galaxies have formed at an increasing rate from z ∼ 8 until z ∼ 2, after which there has been a gradual decline.

KW - Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD

KW - Galaxies: evolution

KW - Galaxies: fundamental parameters

KW - Galaxies: luminosity function, mass function

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=10844294205&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=10844294205&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1086/424857

DO - 10.1086/424857

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:10844294205

VL - 128

SP - 1990

EP - 2012

JO - Astronomical Journal

JF - Astronomical Journal

SN - 0004-6256

IS - 5

ER -