The MECA wet chemistry laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander

Samuel P. Kounaves, Michael H. Hecht, Steven J. West, John Michael Morookian, Suzanne M M Young, Richard Quinn, Paula Grunthaner, Xiaowen Wen, Mark Weilert, Casey A. Cable, Anita Fisher, Kalina Gospodinova, Jason Kapit, Shannon Stroble, Po Chang Hsu, Benton C. Clark, Douglas W. Ming, Peter Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To analyze and interpret the chemical record, the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander includes four wet chemistry cells. These Wet Chemistry Laboratories (WCLs), part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) package, each consist of a lower "beaker" containing sensors designed to analyze the chemical properties of the regolith and an upper "actuator assembly" for adding soil, water, reagents, and stirring. The beaker contains an array of sensors and electrodes that include six membranebased ion selective electrodes (ISE) to measure Ca2+, Mg2+, K +, Na+, NO3-/ClO4 -, and NH4+; two ISEs for H+ (pH); a Ba2+ ISE for titrimetric determination of SO4 2-; two Li+ ISEs as reference electrodes; three solid crystal pellet ISEs for Cl-, Br-, and I-; an iridium oxide electrode for pH; a carbon ring electrode for conductivity; a Pt electrode for oxidation reduction potential (Eh); a Pt and two Ag electrodes for determination of Cl-, Br-, and I- using chronopotentiometry (CP); a Au electrode for identifying redox couples using cyclic voltammetry (CV); and a Au microelectrode array that could be used for either CV or to indicate the presence of several heavy metals, including Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe2/3+, and Hg2+ using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The WCL sensors and analytical procedures have been calibrated and characterized using standard solutions, geological Earth samples, Mars simulants, and cuttings from a Martian meteorite. Sensor characteristics such as limits of detection, interferences, and implications of the Martian environment are also being studied. A sensor response library is being developed to aid in the interpretation of the data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberE00A19
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Volume114
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 20 2009

Fingerprint

electrochemistry
Phoenix (AZ)
Electrochemistry
mars
Mars
microscopy
analyzers
Microscopic examination
electrode
conductivity
chemistry
Electrodes
electrodes
sensors
Sensors
ion selective electrodes
sensor
Ion selective electrodes
Cyclic voltammetry
Phoenix Mars Lander

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Kounaves, S. P., Hecht, M. H., West, S. J., Morookian, J. M., Young, S. M. M., Quinn, R., ... Smith, P. (2009). The MECA wet chemistry laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 114(3), [E00A19]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JE003084

The MECA wet chemistry laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander. / Kounaves, Samuel P.; Hecht, Michael H.; West, Steven J.; Morookian, John Michael; Young, Suzanne M M; Quinn, Richard; Grunthaner, Paula; Wen, Xiaowen; Weilert, Mark; Cable, Casey A.; Fisher, Anita; Gospodinova, Kalina; Kapit, Jason; Stroble, Shannon; Hsu, Po Chang; Clark, Benton C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Smith, Peter.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, No. 3, E00A19, 20.03.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kounaves, SP, Hecht, MH, West, SJ, Morookian, JM, Young, SMM, Quinn, R, Grunthaner, P, Wen, X, Weilert, M, Cable, CA, Fisher, A, Gospodinova, K, Kapit, J, Stroble, S, Hsu, PC, Clark, BC, Ming, DW & Smith, P 2009, 'The MECA wet chemistry laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol. 114, no. 3, E00A19. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JE003084
Kounaves SP, Hecht MH, West SJ, Morookian JM, Young SMM, Quinn R et al. The MECA wet chemistry laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2009 Mar 20;114(3). E00A19. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JE003084
Kounaves, Samuel P. ; Hecht, Michael H. ; West, Steven J. ; Morookian, John Michael ; Young, Suzanne M M ; Quinn, Richard ; Grunthaner, Paula ; Wen, Xiaowen ; Weilert, Mark ; Cable, Casey A. ; Fisher, Anita ; Gospodinova, Kalina ; Kapit, Jason ; Stroble, Shannon ; Hsu, Po Chang ; Clark, Benton C. ; Ming, Douglas W. ; Smith, Peter. / The MECA wet chemistry laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2009 ; Vol. 114, No. 3.
@article{e167973170bb4b23bdf6ea5815f00908,
title = "The MECA wet chemistry laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander",
abstract = "To analyze and interpret the chemical record, the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander includes four wet chemistry cells. These Wet Chemistry Laboratories (WCLs), part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) package, each consist of a lower {"}beaker{"} containing sensors designed to analyze the chemical properties of the regolith and an upper {"}actuator assembly{"} for adding soil, water, reagents, and stirring. The beaker contains an array of sensors and electrodes that include six membranebased ion selective electrodes (ISE) to measure Ca2+, Mg2+, K +, Na+, NO3-/ClO4 -, and NH4+; two ISEs for H+ (pH); a Ba2+ ISE for titrimetric determination of SO4 2-; two Li+ ISEs as reference electrodes; three solid crystal pellet ISEs for Cl-, Br-, and I-; an iridium oxide electrode for pH; a carbon ring electrode for conductivity; a Pt electrode for oxidation reduction potential (Eh); a Pt and two Ag electrodes for determination of Cl-, Br-, and I- using chronopotentiometry (CP); a Au electrode for identifying redox couples using cyclic voltammetry (CV); and a Au microelectrode array that could be used for either CV or to indicate the presence of several heavy metals, including Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe2/3+, and Hg2+ using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The WCL sensors and analytical procedures have been calibrated and characterized using standard solutions, geological Earth samples, Mars simulants, and cuttings from a Martian meteorite. Sensor characteristics such as limits of detection, interferences, and implications of the Martian environment are also being studied. A sensor response library is being developed to aid in the interpretation of the data.",
author = "Kounaves, {Samuel P.} and Hecht, {Michael H.} and West, {Steven J.} and Morookian, {John Michael} and Young, {Suzanne M M} and Richard Quinn and Paula Grunthaner and Xiaowen Wen and Mark Weilert and Cable, {Casey A.} and Anita Fisher and Kalina Gospodinova and Jason Kapit and Shannon Stroble and Hsu, {Po Chang} and Clark, {Benton C.} and Ming, {Douglas W.} and Peter Smith",
year = "2009",
month = "3",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1029/2008JE003084",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "114",
journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics",
issn = "2169-9380",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The MECA wet chemistry laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander

AU - Kounaves, Samuel P.

AU - Hecht, Michael H.

AU - West, Steven J.

AU - Morookian, John Michael

AU - Young, Suzanne M M

AU - Quinn, Richard

AU - Grunthaner, Paula

AU - Wen, Xiaowen

AU - Weilert, Mark

AU - Cable, Casey A.

AU - Fisher, Anita

AU - Gospodinova, Kalina

AU - Kapit, Jason

AU - Stroble, Shannon

AU - Hsu, Po Chang

AU - Clark, Benton C.

AU - Ming, Douglas W.

AU - Smith, Peter

PY - 2009/3/20

Y1 - 2009/3/20

N2 - To analyze and interpret the chemical record, the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander includes four wet chemistry cells. These Wet Chemistry Laboratories (WCLs), part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) package, each consist of a lower "beaker" containing sensors designed to analyze the chemical properties of the regolith and an upper "actuator assembly" for adding soil, water, reagents, and stirring. The beaker contains an array of sensors and electrodes that include six membranebased ion selective electrodes (ISE) to measure Ca2+, Mg2+, K +, Na+, NO3-/ClO4 -, and NH4+; two ISEs for H+ (pH); a Ba2+ ISE for titrimetric determination of SO4 2-; two Li+ ISEs as reference electrodes; three solid crystal pellet ISEs for Cl-, Br-, and I-; an iridium oxide electrode for pH; a carbon ring electrode for conductivity; a Pt electrode for oxidation reduction potential (Eh); a Pt and two Ag electrodes for determination of Cl-, Br-, and I- using chronopotentiometry (CP); a Au electrode for identifying redox couples using cyclic voltammetry (CV); and a Au microelectrode array that could be used for either CV or to indicate the presence of several heavy metals, including Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe2/3+, and Hg2+ using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The WCL sensors and analytical procedures have been calibrated and characterized using standard solutions, geological Earth samples, Mars simulants, and cuttings from a Martian meteorite. Sensor characteristics such as limits of detection, interferences, and implications of the Martian environment are also being studied. A sensor response library is being developed to aid in the interpretation of the data.

AB - To analyze and interpret the chemical record, the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander includes four wet chemistry cells. These Wet Chemistry Laboratories (WCLs), part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) package, each consist of a lower "beaker" containing sensors designed to analyze the chemical properties of the regolith and an upper "actuator assembly" for adding soil, water, reagents, and stirring. The beaker contains an array of sensors and electrodes that include six membranebased ion selective electrodes (ISE) to measure Ca2+, Mg2+, K +, Na+, NO3-/ClO4 -, and NH4+; two ISEs for H+ (pH); a Ba2+ ISE for titrimetric determination of SO4 2-; two Li+ ISEs as reference electrodes; three solid crystal pellet ISEs for Cl-, Br-, and I-; an iridium oxide electrode for pH; a carbon ring electrode for conductivity; a Pt electrode for oxidation reduction potential (Eh); a Pt and two Ag electrodes for determination of Cl-, Br-, and I- using chronopotentiometry (CP); a Au electrode for identifying redox couples using cyclic voltammetry (CV); and a Au microelectrode array that could be used for either CV or to indicate the presence of several heavy metals, including Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe2/3+, and Hg2+ using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The WCL sensors and analytical procedures have been calibrated and characterized using standard solutions, geological Earth samples, Mars simulants, and cuttings from a Martian meteorite. Sensor characteristics such as limits of detection, interferences, and implications of the Martian environment are also being studied. A sensor response library is being developed to aid in the interpretation of the data.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=67649202045&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=67649202045&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1029/2008JE003084

DO - 10.1029/2008JE003084

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:67649202045

VL - 114

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics

SN - 2169-9380

IS - 3

M1 - E00A19

ER -