The missing association: Sequencing-based discovery of novel SNPs in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 that affect warfarin dose in African Americans

M. A. Perera, E. Gamazon, L. H. Cavallari, S. R. Patel, S. Poindexter, R. A. Kittles, D. Nicolae, N. J. Cox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

79 Scopus citations


It is well recognized that the genetic variants VKORC1-1639, CYP2C9*2, and CYP2C9*3 contribute to warfarin dose response. This has led to warfarin dosing algorithms that include these polymorphisms and explains between 47% and 56% of variability in dose in Caucasians. However, these polymorphisms explain significantly less of the variance in dose among African Americans. In order to identify novel variations that affect warfarin dose in African Americans, we used a targeted resequencing strategy that examined evolutionarily conserved sequences and regions of putative transcriptional binding. Through ethnicity-specific warfarin dose model building in 330 African Americans, we identified two novel genetic associations with higher warfarin dose, namely, VKORC1-8191 (rs61162043, P = 0.0041) and 18786 in CYP2C9 (rs7089580, P = 0.035). These novel finds are independent of the previous associations with these genes. Our regression model, encompassing both genetic and clinical variables, explained 40% of the variability in warfarin dose in African-American subjects, significantly more than any model thus far.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)408-415
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2011
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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