The missing cavities in the seeds polarized scattered light images of transitional protoplanetary disks: A generic disk model

R. Dong, R. Rafikov, Z. Zhu, L. Hartmann, B. Whitney, T. Brandt, T. Muto, J. Hashimoto, C. Grady, K. Follette, M. Kuzuhara, R. Tanii, Y. Itoh, C. Thalmann, J. Wisniewski, S. Mayama, M. Janson, L. Abe, W. Brandner, J. CarsonS. Egner, M. Feldt, M. Goto, Olivier Guyon, Y. Hayano, M. Hayashi, S. Hayashi, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, M. Honda, S. Inutsuka, M. Ishii, M. Iye, R. Kandori, G. R. Knapp, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, T. Matsuo, M. W. McElwain, S. Miyama, J. I. Morino, A. Moro-Martin, T. Nishimura, T. S. Pyo, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, M. Takami, N. Takato, H. Terada, D. Tomono, E. L. Turner, M. Watanabe, T. Yamada, H. Takami, T. Usuda, M. Tamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Transitional circumstellar disks around young stellar objects have a distinctive infrared deficit around 10 μm in their spectral energy distributions, recently measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), suggesting dust depletion in the inner regions. These disks have been confirmed to have giant central cavities by imaging of the submillimeter continuum emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). However, the polarized near-infrared scattered light images for most objects in a systematic IRS/SMA cross sample, obtained by HiCIAO on the Subaru telescope, show no evidence for the cavity, in clear contrast with SMA and Spitzer observations. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that many of these scattered light images are consistent with a smooth spatial distribution for μm-sized grains, with little discontinuity in the surface density of the μm-sized grains at the cavity edge. Here we present a generic disk model that can simultaneously account for the general features in IRS, SMA, and Subaru observations. Particularly, the scattered light images for this model are computed, which agree with the general trend seen in Subaru data. Decoupling between the spatial distributions of the μm-sized dust and mm-sized dust inside the cavity is suggested by the model, which, if confirmed, necessitates a mechanism, such as dust filtration, for differentiating the small and big dust in the cavity clearing process. Our model also suggests an inwardly increasing gas-to-dust ratio in the inner disk, and different spatial distributions for the small dust inside and outside the cavity, echoing the predictions in grain coagulation and growth models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number161
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume750
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 10 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

protoplanetary disks
polarized light
seeds
cavity
dust
seed
cavities
spectrographs
spatial distribution
clearing
coagulation
spectral energy distribution
decoupling
radiative transfer
near infrared
discontinuity
depletion
telescopes
continuums
trends

Keywords

  • circumstellar matter
  • protoplanetary disks
  • radiative transfer
  • stars: pre-main sequence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

The missing cavities in the seeds polarized scattered light images of transitional protoplanetary disks : A generic disk model. / Dong, R.; Rafikov, R.; Zhu, Z.; Hartmann, L.; Whitney, B.; Brandt, T.; Muto, T.; Hashimoto, J.; Grady, C.; Follette, K.; Kuzuhara, M.; Tanii, R.; Itoh, Y.; Thalmann, C.; Wisniewski, J.; Mayama, S.; Janson, M.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Honda, M.; Inutsuka, S.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G. R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Matsuo, T.; McElwain, M. W.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J. I.; Moro-Martin, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T. S.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Tomono, D.; Turner, E. L.; Watanabe, M.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 750, No. 2, 161, 10.05.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dong, R, Rafikov, R, Zhu, Z, Hartmann, L, Whitney, B, Brandt, T, Muto, T, Hashimoto, J, Grady, C, Follette, K, Kuzuhara, M, Tanii, R, Itoh, Y, Thalmann, C, Wisniewski, J, Mayama, S, Janson, M, Abe, L, Brandner, W, Carson, J, Egner, S, Feldt, M, Goto, M, Guyon, O, Hayano, Y, Hayashi, M, Hayashi, S, Henning, T, Hodapp, KW, Honda, M, Inutsuka, S, Ishii, M, Iye, M, Kandori, R, Knapp, GR, Kudo, T, Kusakabe, N, Matsuo, T, McElwain, MW, Miyama, S, Morino, JI, Moro-Martin, A, Nishimura, T, Pyo, TS, Suto, H, Suzuki, R, Takami, M, Takato, N, Terada, H, Tomono, D, Turner, EL, Watanabe, M, Yamada, T, Takami, H, Usuda, T & Tamura, M 2012, 'The missing cavities in the seeds polarized scattered light images of transitional protoplanetary disks: A generic disk model', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 750, no. 2, 161. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/750/2/161
Dong, R. ; Rafikov, R. ; Zhu, Z. ; Hartmann, L. ; Whitney, B. ; Brandt, T. ; Muto, T. ; Hashimoto, J. ; Grady, C. ; Follette, K. ; Kuzuhara, M. ; Tanii, R. ; Itoh, Y. ; Thalmann, C. ; Wisniewski, J. ; Mayama, S. ; Janson, M. ; Abe, L. ; Brandner, W. ; Carson, J. ; Egner, S. ; Feldt, M. ; Goto, M. ; Guyon, Olivier ; Hayano, Y. ; Hayashi, M. ; Hayashi, S. ; Henning, T. ; Hodapp, K. W. ; Honda, M. ; Inutsuka, S. ; Ishii, M. ; Iye, M. ; Kandori, R. ; Knapp, G. R. ; Kudo, T. ; Kusakabe, N. ; Matsuo, T. ; McElwain, M. W. ; Miyama, S. ; Morino, J. I. ; Moro-Martin, A. ; Nishimura, T. ; Pyo, T. S. ; Suto, H. ; Suzuki, R. ; Takami, M. ; Takato, N. ; Terada, H. ; Tomono, D. ; Turner, E. L. ; Watanabe, M. ; Yamada, T. ; Takami, H. ; Usuda, T. ; Tamura, M. / The missing cavities in the seeds polarized scattered light images of transitional protoplanetary disks : A generic disk model. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2012 ; Vol. 750, No. 2.
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abstract = "Transitional circumstellar disks around young stellar objects have a distinctive infrared deficit around 10 μm in their spectral energy distributions, recently measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), suggesting dust depletion in the inner regions. These disks have been confirmed to have giant central cavities by imaging of the submillimeter continuum emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). However, the polarized near-infrared scattered light images for most objects in a systematic IRS/SMA cross sample, obtained by HiCIAO on the Subaru telescope, show no evidence for the cavity, in clear contrast with SMA and Spitzer observations. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that many of these scattered light images are consistent with a smooth spatial distribution for μm-sized grains, with little discontinuity in the surface density of the μm-sized grains at the cavity edge. Here we present a generic disk model that can simultaneously account for the general features in IRS, SMA, and Subaru observations. Particularly, the scattered light images for this model are computed, which agree with the general trend seen in Subaru data. Decoupling between the spatial distributions of the μm-sized dust and mm-sized dust inside the cavity is suggested by the model, which, if confirmed, necessitates a mechanism, such as dust filtration, for differentiating the small and big dust in the cavity clearing process. Our model also suggests an inwardly increasing gas-to-dust ratio in the inner disk, and different spatial distributions for the small dust inside and outside the cavity, echoing the predictions in grain coagulation and growth models.",
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T1 - The missing cavities in the seeds polarized scattered light images of transitional protoplanetary disks

T2 - A generic disk model

AU - Dong, R.

AU - Rafikov, R.

AU - Zhu, Z.

AU - Hartmann, L.

AU - Whitney, B.

AU - Brandt, T.

AU - Muto, T.

AU - Hashimoto, J.

AU - Grady, C.

AU - Follette, K.

AU - Kuzuhara, M.

AU - Tanii, R.

AU - Itoh, Y.

AU - Thalmann, C.

AU - Wisniewski, J.

AU - Mayama, S.

AU - Janson, M.

AU - Abe, L.

AU - Brandner, W.

AU - Carson, J.

AU - Egner, S.

AU - Feldt, M.

AU - Goto, M.

AU - Guyon, Olivier

AU - Hayano, Y.

AU - Hayashi, M.

AU - Hayashi, S.

AU - Henning, T.

AU - Hodapp, K. W.

AU - Honda, M.

AU - Inutsuka, S.

AU - Ishii, M.

AU - Iye, M.

AU - Kandori, R.

AU - Knapp, G. R.

AU - Kudo, T.

AU - Kusakabe, N.

AU - Matsuo, T.

AU - McElwain, M. W.

AU - Miyama, S.

AU - Morino, J. I.

AU - Moro-Martin, A.

AU - Nishimura, T.

AU - Pyo, T. S.

AU - Suto, H.

AU - Suzuki, R.

AU - Takami, M.

AU - Takato, N.

AU - Terada, H.

AU - Tomono, D.

AU - Turner, E. L.

AU - Watanabe, M.

AU - Yamada, T.

AU - Takami, H.

AU - Usuda, T.

AU - Tamura, M.

PY - 2012/5/10

Y1 - 2012/5/10

N2 - Transitional circumstellar disks around young stellar objects have a distinctive infrared deficit around 10 μm in their spectral energy distributions, recently measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), suggesting dust depletion in the inner regions. These disks have been confirmed to have giant central cavities by imaging of the submillimeter continuum emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). However, the polarized near-infrared scattered light images for most objects in a systematic IRS/SMA cross sample, obtained by HiCIAO on the Subaru telescope, show no evidence for the cavity, in clear contrast with SMA and Spitzer observations. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that many of these scattered light images are consistent with a smooth spatial distribution for μm-sized grains, with little discontinuity in the surface density of the μm-sized grains at the cavity edge. Here we present a generic disk model that can simultaneously account for the general features in IRS, SMA, and Subaru observations. Particularly, the scattered light images for this model are computed, which agree with the general trend seen in Subaru data. Decoupling between the spatial distributions of the μm-sized dust and mm-sized dust inside the cavity is suggested by the model, which, if confirmed, necessitates a mechanism, such as dust filtration, for differentiating the small and big dust in the cavity clearing process. Our model also suggests an inwardly increasing gas-to-dust ratio in the inner disk, and different spatial distributions for the small dust inside and outside the cavity, echoing the predictions in grain coagulation and growth models.

AB - Transitional circumstellar disks around young stellar objects have a distinctive infrared deficit around 10 μm in their spectral energy distributions, recently measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), suggesting dust depletion in the inner regions. These disks have been confirmed to have giant central cavities by imaging of the submillimeter continuum emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). However, the polarized near-infrared scattered light images for most objects in a systematic IRS/SMA cross sample, obtained by HiCIAO on the Subaru telescope, show no evidence for the cavity, in clear contrast with SMA and Spitzer observations. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that many of these scattered light images are consistent with a smooth spatial distribution for μm-sized grains, with little discontinuity in the surface density of the μm-sized grains at the cavity edge. Here we present a generic disk model that can simultaneously account for the general features in IRS, SMA, and Subaru observations. Particularly, the scattered light images for this model are computed, which agree with the general trend seen in Subaru data. Decoupling between the spatial distributions of the μm-sized dust and mm-sized dust inside the cavity is suggested by the model, which, if confirmed, necessitates a mechanism, such as dust filtration, for differentiating the small and big dust in the cavity clearing process. Our model also suggests an inwardly increasing gas-to-dust ratio in the inner disk, and different spatial distributions for the small dust inside and outside the cavity, echoing the predictions in grain coagulation and growth models.

KW - circumstellar matter

KW - protoplanetary disks

KW - radiative transfer

KW - stars: pre-main sequence

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