The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta

F. Capaccioni, A. Coradini, G. Filacchione, S. Erard, G. Arnold, P. Drossart, M. C. De Sanctis, D. Bockelee-Morvan, M. T. Capria, F. Tosi, C. Leyrat, B. Schmitt, E. Quirico, P. Cerroni, V. Mennella, A. Raponi, M. Ciarniello, T. McCord, L. Moroz, E. PalombaE. Ammannito, M. A. Barucci, G. Bellucci, J. Benkhoff, J. P. Bibring, A. Blanco, M. Blecka, R. Carlson, U. Carsenty, L. Colangeli, M. Combes, M. Combi, J. Crovisier, T. Encrenaz, C. Federico, Uwe - Fink, S. Fonti, W. H. Ip, P. Irwin, R. Jaumann, E. Kuehrt, Y. Langevin, G. Magni, S. Mottola, V. Orofino, P. Palumbo, G. Piccioni, U. Schade, F. Taylor, D. Tiphene, G. P. Tozzi, P. Beck, N. Biver, L. Bonal, J. Ph Combe, D. Despan, E. Flamini, S. Fornasier, A. Frigeri, D. Grassi, M. Gudipati, A. Longobardo, K. Markus, F. Merlin, R. Orosei, G. Rinaldi, K. Stephan, M. Cartacci, A. Cicchetti, S. Giuppi, Y. Hello, F. Henry, S. Jacquinod, R. Noschese, G. Peter, R. Politi, J. M. Reess, A. Semery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The VIRTIS (Visible, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft has provided evidence of carbon-bearing compounds on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very low reflectance of the nucleus (normal albedo of 0.060 ± 0.003 at 0.55 micrometers), the spectral slopes in visible and infrared ranges (5 to 25 and 1.5 to 5% kÅ-1), and the broad absorption feature in the 2.9-to-3.6-micrometer range present across the entire illuminated surface are compatible with opaque minerals associated with nonvolatile organic macromolecular materials: a complex mixture of various types of carbon-hydrogen and/or oxygen-hydrogen chemical groups, with little contribution of nitrogen-hydrogen groups. In active areas, the changes in spectral slope and absorption feature width may suggest small amounts of water-ice. However, no ice-rich patches are observed, indicating a generally dehydrated nature for the surface currently illuminated by the Sun.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberaaa0628
JournalScience
Volume347
Issue number6220
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 23 2015

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comet
spectrometer
hydrogen
ice
carbon
albedo
reflectance
spacecraft
oxygen
nitrogen
mineral
water
chemical
material

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Capaccioni, F., Coradini, A., Filacchione, G., Erard, S., Arnold, G., Drossart, P., ... Semery, A. (2015). The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta. Science, 347(6220), [aaa0628]. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa0628

The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta. / Capaccioni, F.; Coradini, A.; Filacchione, G.; Erard, S.; Arnold, G.; Drossart, P.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; Leyrat, C.; Schmitt, B.; Quirico, E.; Cerroni, P.; Mennella, V.; Raponi, A.; Ciarniello, M.; McCord, T.; Moroz, L.; Palomba, E.; Ammannito, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Bellucci, G.; Benkhoff, J.; Bibring, J. P.; Blanco, A.; Blecka, M.; Carlson, R.; Carsenty, U.; Colangeli, L.; Combes, M.; Combi, M.; Crovisier, J.; Encrenaz, T.; Federico, C.; Fink, Uwe -; Fonti, S.; Ip, W. H.; Irwin, P.; Jaumann, R.; Kuehrt, E.; Langevin, Y.; Magni, G.; Mottola, S.; Orofino, V.; Palumbo, P.; Piccioni, G.; Schade, U.; Taylor, F.; Tiphene, D.; Tozzi, G. P.; Beck, P.; Biver, N.; Bonal, L.; Combe, J. Ph; Despan, D.; Flamini, E.; Fornasier, S.; Frigeri, A.; Grassi, D.; Gudipati, M.; Longobardo, A.; Markus, K.; Merlin, F.; Orosei, R.; Rinaldi, G.; Stephan, K.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Giuppi, S.; Hello, Y.; Henry, F.; Jacquinod, S.; Noschese, R.; Peter, G.; Politi, R.; Reess, J. M.; Semery, A.

In: Science, Vol. 347, No. 6220, aaa0628, 23.01.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Capaccioni, F, Coradini, A, Filacchione, G, Erard, S, Arnold, G, Drossart, P, De Sanctis, MC, Bockelee-Morvan, D, Capria, MT, Tosi, F, Leyrat, C, Schmitt, B, Quirico, E, Cerroni, P, Mennella, V, Raponi, A, Ciarniello, M, McCord, T, Moroz, L, Palomba, E, Ammannito, E, Barucci, MA, Bellucci, G, Benkhoff, J, Bibring, JP, Blanco, A, Blecka, M, Carlson, R, Carsenty, U, Colangeli, L, Combes, M, Combi, M, Crovisier, J, Encrenaz, T, Federico, C, Fink, U, Fonti, S, Ip, WH, Irwin, P, Jaumann, R, Kuehrt, E, Langevin, Y, Magni, G, Mottola, S, Orofino, V, Palumbo, P, Piccioni, G, Schade, U, Taylor, F, Tiphene, D, Tozzi, GP, Beck, P, Biver, N, Bonal, L, Combe, JP, Despan, D, Flamini, E, Fornasier, S, Frigeri, A, Grassi, D, Gudipati, M, Longobardo, A, Markus, K, Merlin, F, Orosei, R, Rinaldi, G, Stephan, K, Cartacci, M, Cicchetti, A, Giuppi, S, Hello, Y, Henry, F, Jacquinod, S, Noschese, R, Peter, G, Politi, R, Reess, JM & Semery, A 2015, 'The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta', Science, vol. 347, no. 6220, aaa0628. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa0628
Capaccioni F, Coradini A, Filacchione G, Erard S, Arnold G, Drossart P et al. The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta. Science. 2015 Jan 23;347(6220). aaa0628. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa0628
Capaccioni, F. ; Coradini, A. ; Filacchione, G. ; Erard, S. ; Arnold, G. ; Drossart, P. ; De Sanctis, M. C. ; Bockelee-Morvan, D. ; Capria, M. T. ; Tosi, F. ; Leyrat, C. ; Schmitt, B. ; Quirico, E. ; Cerroni, P. ; Mennella, V. ; Raponi, A. ; Ciarniello, M. ; McCord, T. ; Moroz, L. ; Palomba, E. ; Ammannito, E. ; Barucci, M. A. ; Bellucci, G. ; Benkhoff, J. ; Bibring, J. P. ; Blanco, A. ; Blecka, M. ; Carlson, R. ; Carsenty, U. ; Colangeli, L. ; Combes, M. ; Combi, M. ; Crovisier, J. ; Encrenaz, T. ; Federico, C. ; Fink, Uwe - ; Fonti, S. ; Ip, W. H. ; Irwin, P. ; Jaumann, R. ; Kuehrt, E. ; Langevin, Y. ; Magni, G. ; Mottola, S. ; Orofino, V. ; Palumbo, P. ; Piccioni, G. ; Schade, U. ; Taylor, F. ; Tiphene, D. ; Tozzi, G. P. ; Beck, P. ; Biver, N. ; Bonal, L. ; Combe, J. Ph ; Despan, D. ; Flamini, E. ; Fornasier, S. ; Frigeri, A. ; Grassi, D. ; Gudipati, M. ; Longobardo, A. ; Markus, K. ; Merlin, F. ; Orosei, R. ; Rinaldi, G. ; Stephan, K. ; Cartacci, M. ; Cicchetti, A. ; Giuppi, S. ; Hello, Y. ; Henry, F. ; Jacquinod, S. ; Noschese, R. ; Peter, G. ; Politi, R. ; Reess, J. M. ; Semery, A. / The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta. In: Science. 2015 ; Vol. 347, No. 6220.
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title = "The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta",
abstract = "The VIRTIS (Visible, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft has provided evidence of carbon-bearing compounds on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very low reflectance of the nucleus (normal albedo of 0.060 ± 0.003 at 0.55 micrometers), the spectral slopes in visible and infrared ranges (5 to 25 and 1.5 to 5{\%} k{\AA}-1), and the broad absorption feature in the 2.9-to-3.6-micrometer range present across the entire illuminated surface are compatible with opaque minerals associated with nonvolatile organic macromolecular materials: a complex mixture of various types of carbon-hydrogen and/or oxygen-hydrogen chemical groups, with little contribution of nitrogen-hydrogen groups. In active areas, the changes in spectral slope and absorption feature width may suggest small amounts of water-ice. However, no ice-rich patches are observed, indicating a generally dehydrated nature for the surface currently illuminated by the Sun.",
author = "F. Capaccioni and A. Coradini and G. Filacchione and S. Erard and G. Arnold and P. Drossart and {De Sanctis}, {M. C.} and D. Bockelee-Morvan and Capria, {M. T.} and F. Tosi and C. Leyrat and B. Schmitt and E. Quirico and P. Cerroni and V. Mennella and A. Raponi and M. Ciarniello and T. McCord and L. Moroz and E. Palomba and E. Ammannito and Barucci, {M. A.} and G. Bellucci and J. Benkhoff and Bibring, {J. P.} and A. Blanco and M. Blecka and R. Carlson and U. Carsenty and L. Colangeli and M. Combes and M. Combi and J. Crovisier and T. Encrenaz and C. Federico and Fink, {Uwe -} and S. Fonti and Ip, {W. H.} and P. Irwin and R. Jaumann and E. Kuehrt and Y. Langevin and G. Magni and S. Mottola and V. Orofino and P. Palumbo and G. Piccioni and U. Schade and F. Taylor and D. Tiphene and Tozzi, {G. P.} and P. Beck and N. Biver and L. Bonal and Combe, {J. Ph} and D. Despan and E. Flamini and S. Fornasier and A. Frigeri and D. Grassi and M. Gudipati and A. Longobardo and K. Markus and F. Merlin and R. Orosei and G. Rinaldi and K. Stephan and M. Cartacci and A. Cicchetti and S. Giuppi and Y. Hello and F. Henry and S. Jacquinod and R. Noschese and G. Peter and R. Politi and Reess, {J. M.} and A. Semery",
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T1 - The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta

AU - Capaccioni, F.

AU - Coradini, A.

AU - Filacchione, G.

AU - Erard, S.

AU - Arnold, G.

AU - Drossart, P.

AU - De Sanctis, M. C.

AU - Bockelee-Morvan, D.

AU - Capria, M. T.

AU - Tosi, F.

AU - Leyrat, C.

AU - Schmitt, B.

AU - Quirico, E.

AU - Cerroni, P.

AU - Mennella, V.

AU - Raponi, A.

AU - Ciarniello, M.

AU - McCord, T.

AU - Moroz, L.

AU - Palomba, E.

AU - Ammannito, E.

AU - Barucci, M. A.

AU - Bellucci, G.

AU - Benkhoff, J.

AU - Bibring, J. P.

AU - Blanco, A.

AU - Blecka, M.

AU - Carlson, R.

AU - Carsenty, U.

AU - Colangeli, L.

AU - Combes, M.

AU - Combi, M.

AU - Crovisier, J.

AU - Encrenaz, T.

AU - Federico, C.

AU - Fink, Uwe -

AU - Fonti, S.

AU - Ip, W. H.

AU - Irwin, P.

AU - Jaumann, R.

AU - Kuehrt, E.

AU - Langevin, Y.

AU - Magni, G.

AU - Mottola, S.

AU - Orofino, V.

AU - Palumbo, P.

AU - Piccioni, G.

AU - Schade, U.

AU - Taylor, F.

AU - Tiphene, D.

AU - Tozzi, G. P.

AU - Beck, P.

AU - Biver, N.

AU - Bonal, L.

AU - Combe, J. Ph

AU - Despan, D.

AU - Flamini, E.

AU - Fornasier, S.

AU - Frigeri, A.

AU - Grassi, D.

AU - Gudipati, M.

AU - Longobardo, A.

AU - Markus, K.

AU - Merlin, F.

AU - Orosei, R.

AU - Rinaldi, G.

AU - Stephan, K.

AU - Cartacci, M.

AU - Cicchetti, A.

AU - Giuppi, S.

AU - Hello, Y.

AU - Henry, F.

AU - Jacquinod, S.

AU - Noschese, R.

AU - Peter, G.

AU - Politi, R.

AU - Reess, J. M.

AU - Semery, A.

PY - 2015/1/23

Y1 - 2015/1/23

N2 - The VIRTIS (Visible, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft has provided evidence of carbon-bearing compounds on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very low reflectance of the nucleus (normal albedo of 0.060 ± 0.003 at 0.55 micrometers), the spectral slopes in visible and infrared ranges (5 to 25 and 1.5 to 5% kÅ-1), and the broad absorption feature in the 2.9-to-3.6-micrometer range present across the entire illuminated surface are compatible with opaque minerals associated with nonvolatile organic macromolecular materials: a complex mixture of various types of carbon-hydrogen and/or oxygen-hydrogen chemical groups, with little contribution of nitrogen-hydrogen groups. In active areas, the changes in spectral slope and absorption feature width may suggest small amounts of water-ice. However, no ice-rich patches are observed, indicating a generally dehydrated nature for the surface currently illuminated by the Sun.

AB - The VIRTIS (Visible, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft has provided evidence of carbon-bearing compounds on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very low reflectance of the nucleus (normal albedo of 0.060 ± 0.003 at 0.55 micrometers), the spectral slopes in visible and infrared ranges (5 to 25 and 1.5 to 5% kÅ-1), and the broad absorption feature in the 2.9-to-3.6-micrometer range present across the entire illuminated surface are compatible with opaque minerals associated with nonvolatile organic macromolecular materials: a complex mixture of various types of carbon-hydrogen and/or oxygen-hydrogen chemical groups, with little contribution of nitrogen-hydrogen groups. In active areas, the changes in spectral slope and absorption feature width may suggest small amounts of water-ice. However, no ice-rich patches are observed, indicating a generally dehydrated nature for the surface currently illuminated by the Sun.

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