The physics of cosmic-ray modulation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The theory of the modulation of galactic cosmic rays by the solar wind is reviewed. The basic transport equation is presented, interpreted and then applied to cosmic-ray transport in a model heliosphere immersed in a constant uniform bath of galactic cosmic rays. The results of numerical modelling are presented and the dominant physical effects analyzed. A variety of observational tests of the model which were reported over the last several years are summarized and shown, generally, to support a model in which particle drifts play an important role. Recent measurements which show that the latitudinal gradient of cosmic rays changed sign in the recent sunspot minimum (relative the last sunspot minimum) are shown to provide additional, strong, support for the model. A new picture of the interplanetary magnetic field is presented, which gives promise of improving considerably the agreement between the theory and observations in the few remaining problem areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-119
Number of pages15
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Volume9
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1989

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Cosmic rays
cosmic ray
cosmic rays
physics
Physics
Modulation
modulation
sunspots
sunspot
Solar wind
heliosphere
latitudinal gradient
interplanetary magnetic fields
solar wind
baths
Magnetic fields
magnetic field
gradients
modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

The physics of cosmic-ray modulation. / Jokipii, J. Randy.

In: Advances in Space Research, Vol. 9, No. 12, 1989, p. 105-119.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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