The redshift evolution of the mean temperature, pressure, and entropy profiles in 80 spt-selected galaxy clusters

M. McDonald, B. A. Benson, A. Vikhlinin, K. A. Aird, S. W. Allen, M. Bautz, M. Bayliss, L. E. Bleem, S. Bocquet, M. Brodwin, J. E. Carlstrom, C. L. Chang, H. M. Cho, A. Clocchiatti, T. M. Crawford, A. T. Crites, T. De Haan, M. A. Dobbs, R. J. Foley, W. R. FormanE. M. George, M. D. Gladders, A. H. Gonzalez, N. W. Halverson, J. Hlavacek-Larrondo, G. P. Holder, W. L. Holzapfel, J. D. Hrubes, C. Jones, R. Keisler, L. Knox, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Liu, M. Lueker, D. Luong-Van, A. Mantz, Daniel P Marrone, J. J. McMahon, S. S. Meyer, E. D. Miller, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, S. S. Murray, S. Padin, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, A. Rest, J. E. Ruhl, B. R. Saliwanchik, A. Saro, J. T. Sayre, K. K. Schaffer, E. Shirokoff, H. G. Spieler, B. Stalder, S. A. Stanford, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, K. T. Story, C. W. Stubbs, K. Vanderlinde, J. D. Vieira, R. Williamson, O. Zahn, A. Zenteno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present the results of an X-ray analysis of 80 galaxy clusters selected in the 2500 deg2South Pole Telescope survey and observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We divide the full sample into subsamples of 20 clusters based on redshift and central density, performing a joint X-ray spectral fit to all clusters in a subsample simultaneously, assuming self-similarity of the temperature profile. This approach allows us to constrain the shape of the temperature profile over 0 < r < 1.5R 500, which would be impossible on a per-cluster basis, since the observations of individual clusters have, on average, 2000 X-ray counts. The results presented here represent the first constraints on the evolution of the average temperature profile from z = 0 to z = 1.2. We find that high-z (0.6 < z < 1.2) clusters are slightly (30%) cooler both in the inner (r < 0.1R 500) and outer (r > R 500) regions than their low-z (0.3 < z < 0.6) counterparts. Combining the average temperature profile with measured gas density profiles from our earlier work, we infer the average pressure and entropy profiles for each subsample. Confirming earlier results from this data set, we find an absence of strong cool cores at high z, manifested in this analysis as a significantly lower observed pressure in the central 0.1R 500of the high-z cool-core subset of clusters compared to the low-z cool-core subset. Overall, our observed pressure profiles agree well with earlier lower-redshift measurements, suggesting minimal redshift evolution in the pressure profile outside of the core. We find no measurable redshift evolution in the entropy profile at r ≲ 0.7R 500- this may reflect a long-standing balance between cooling and feedback over long timescales and large physical scales. We observe a slight flattening of the entropy profile at r ≳ R 500in our high-z subsample. This flattening is consistent with a temperature bias due to the enhanced (3×) rate at which group-mass (2 keV) halos, which would go undetected at our survey depth, are accreting onto the cluster at z 1. This work demonstrates a powerful method for inferring spatially resolved cluster properties in the case where individual cluster signal-to-noise is low, but the number of observed clusters is high.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number67
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume794
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 10 2014

Fingerprint

temperature profiles
entropy
temperature profile
galaxies
profiles
temperature
flattening
X-ray spectroscopy
set theory
observatory
cooling
timescale
x rays
gas density
gas
low noise
halos
observatories
poles
low pressure

Keywords

  • early universe
  • galaxies: clusters: general
  • galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
  • X-rays: galaxies:clusters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

McDonald, M., Benson, B. A., Vikhlinin, A., Aird, K. A., Allen, S. W., Bautz, M., ... Zenteno, A. (2014). The redshift evolution of the mean temperature, pressure, and entropy profiles in 80 spt-selected galaxy clusters. Astrophysical Journal, 794(1), [67]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/67

The redshift evolution of the mean temperature, pressure, and entropy profiles in 80 spt-selected galaxy clusters. / McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; Vikhlinin, A.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, Daniel P; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, E. D.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 794, No. 1, 67, 10.10.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McDonald, M, Benson, BA, Vikhlinin, A, Aird, KA, Allen, SW, Bautz, M, Bayliss, M, Bleem, LE, Bocquet, S, Brodwin, M, Carlstrom, JE, Chang, CL, Cho, HM, Clocchiatti, A, Crawford, TM, Crites, AT, De Haan, T, Dobbs, MA, Foley, RJ, Forman, WR, George, EM, Gladders, MD, Gonzalez, AH, Halverson, NW, Hlavacek-Larrondo, J, Holder, GP, Holzapfel, WL, Hrubes, JD, Jones, C, Keisler, R, Knox, L, Lee, AT, Leitch, EM, Liu, J, Lueker, M, Luong-Van, D, Mantz, A, Marrone, DP, McMahon, JJ, Meyer, SS, Miller, ED, Mocanu, L, Mohr, JJ, Murray, SS, Padin, S, Pryke, C, Reichardt, CL, Rest, A, Ruhl, JE, Saliwanchik, BR, Saro, A, Sayre, JT, Schaffer, KK, Shirokoff, E, Spieler, HG, Stalder, B, Stanford, SA, Staniszewski, Z, Stark, AA, Story, KT, Stubbs, CW, Vanderlinde, K, Vieira, JD, Williamson, R, Zahn, O & Zenteno, A 2014, 'The redshift evolution of the mean temperature, pressure, and entropy profiles in 80 spt-selected galaxy clusters', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 794, no. 1, 67. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/67
McDonald, M. ; Benson, B. A. ; Vikhlinin, A. ; Aird, K. A. ; Allen, S. W. ; Bautz, M. ; Bayliss, M. ; Bleem, L. E. ; Bocquet, S. ; Brodwin, M. ; Carlstrom, J. E. ; Chang, C. L. ; Cho, H. M. ; Clocchiatti, A. ; Crawford, T. M. ; Crites, A. T. ; De Haan, T. ; Dobbs, M. A. ; Foley, R. J. ; Forman, W. R. ; George, E. M. ; Gladders, M. D. ; Gonzalez, A. H. ; Halverson, N. W. ; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J. ; Holder, G. P. ; Holzapfel, W. L. ; Hrubes, J. D. ; Jones, C. ; Keisler, R. ; Knox, L. ; Lee, A. T. ; Leitch, E. M. ; Liu, J. ; Lueker, M. ; Luong-Van, D. ; Mantz, A. ; Marrone, Daniel P ; McMahon, J. J. ; Meyer, S. S. ; Miller, E. D. ; Mocanu, L. ; Mohr, J. J. ; Murray, S. S. ; Padin, S. ; Pryke, C. ; Reichardt, C. L. ; Rest, A. ; Ruhl, J. E. ; Saliwanchik, B. R. ; Saro, A. ; Sayre, J. T. ; Schaffer, K. K. ; Shirokoff, E. ; Spieler, H. G. ; Stalder, B. ; Stanford, S. A. ; Staniszewski, Z. ; Stark, A. A. ; Story, K. T. ; Stubbs, C. W. ; Vanderlinde, K. ; Vieira, J. D. ; Williamson, R. ; Zahn, O. ; Zenteno, A. / The redshift evolution of the mean temperature, pressure, and entropy profiles in 80 spt-selected galaxy clusters. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 794, No. 1.
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title = "The redshift evolution of the mean temperature, pressure, and entropy profiles in 80 spt-selected galaxy clusters",
abstract = "We present the results of an X-ray analysis of 80 galaxy clusters selected in the 2500 deg2South Pole Telescope survey and observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We divide the full sample into subsamples of 20 clusters based on redshift and central density, performing a joint X-ray spectral fit to all clusters in a subsample simultaneously, assuming self-similarity of the temperature profile. This approach allows us to constrain the shape of the temperature profile over 0 < r < 1.5R 500, which would be impossible on a per-cluster basis, since the observations of individual clusters have, on average, 2000 X-ray counts. The results presented here represent the first constraints on the evolution of the average temperature profile from z = 0 to z = 1.2. We find that high-z (0.6 < z < 1.2) clusters are slightly (30{\%}) cooler both in the inner (r < 0.1R 500) and outer (r > R 500) regions than their low-z (0.3 < z < 0.6) counterparts. Combining the average temperature profile with measured gas density profiles from our earlier work, we infer the average pressure and entropy profiles for each subsample. Confirming earlier results from this data set, we find an absence of strong cool cores at high z, manifested in this analysis as a significantly lower observed pressure in the central 0.1R 500of the high-z cool-core subset of clusters compared to the low-z cool-core subset. Overall, our observed pressure profiles agree well with earlier lower-redshift measurements, suggesting minimal redshift evolution in the pressure profile outside of the core. We find no measurable redshift evolution in the entropy profile at r ≲ 0.7R 500- this may reflect a long-standing balance between cooling and feedback over long timescales and large physical scales. We observe a slight flattening of the entropy profile at r ≳ R 500in our high-z subsample. This flattening is consistent with a temperature bias due to the enhanced (3×) rate at which group-mass (2 keV) halos, which would go undetected at our survey depth, are accreting onto the cluster at z 1. This work demonstrates a powerful method for inferring spatially resolved cluster properties in the case where individual cluster signal-to-noise is low, but the number of observed clusters is high.",
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T1 - The redshift evolution of the mean temperature, pressure, and entropy profiles in 80 spt-selected galaxy clusters

AU - McDonald, M.

AU - Benson, B. A.

AU - Vikhlinin, A.

AU - Aird, K. A.

AU - Allen, S. W.

AU - Bautz, M.

AU - Bayliss, M.

AU - Bleem, L. E.

AU - Bocquet, S.

AU - Brodwin, M.

AU - Carlstrom, J. E.

AU - Chang, C. L.

AU - Cho, H. M.

AU - Clocchiatti, A.

AU - Crawford, T. M.

AU - Crites, A. T.

AU - De Haan, T.

AU - Dobbs, M. A.

AU - Foley, R. J.

AU - Forman, W. R.

AU - George, E. M.

AU - Gladders, M. D.

AU - Gonzalez, A. H.

AU - Halverson, N. W.

AU - Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.

AU - Holder, G. P.

AU - Holzapfel, W. L.

AU - Hrubes, J. D.

AU - Jones, C.

AU - Keisler, R.

AU - Knox, L.

AU - Lee, A. T.

AU - Leitch, E. M.

AU - Liu, J.

AU - Lueker, M.

AU - Luong-Van, D.

AU - Mantz, A.

AU - Marrone, Daniel P

AU - McMahon, J. J.

AU - Meyer, S. S.

AU - Miller, E. D.

AU - Mocanu, L.

AU - Mohr, J. J.

AU - Murray, S. S.

AU - Padin, S.

AU - Pryke, C.

AU - Reichardt, C. L.

AU - Rest, A.

AU - Ruhl, J. E.

AU - Saliwanchik, B. R.

AU - Saro, A.

AU - Sayre, J. T.

AU - Schaffer, K. K.

AU - Shirokoff, E.

AU - Spieler, H. G.

AU - Stalder, B.

AU - Stanford, S. A.

AU - Staniszewski, Z.

AU - Stark, A. A.

AU - Story, K. T.

AU - Stubbs, C. W.

AU - Vanderlinde, K.

AU - Vieira, J. D.

AU - Williamson, R.

AU - Zahn, O.

AU - Zenteno, A.

PY - 2014/10/10

Y1 - 2014/10/10

N2 - We present the results of an X-ray analysis of 80 galaxy clusters selected in the 2500 deg2South Pole Telescope survey and observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We divide the full sample into subsamples of 20 clusters based on redshift and central density, performing a joint X-ray spectral fit to all clusters in a subsample simultaneously, assuming self-similarity of the temperature profile. This approach allows us to constrain the shape of the temperature profile over 0 < r < 1.5R 500, which would be impossible on a per-cluster basis, since the observations of individual clusters have, on average, 2000 X-ray counts. The results presented here represent the first constraints on the evolution of the average temperature profile from z = 0 to z = 1.2. We find that high-z (0.6 < z < 1.2) clusters are slightly (30%) cooler both in the inner (r < 0.1R 500) and outer (r > R 500) regions than their low-z (0.3 < z < 0.6) counterparts. Combining the average temperature profile with measured gas density profiles from our earlier work, we infer the average pressure and entropy profiles for each subsample. Confirming earlier results from this data set, we find an absence of strong cool cores at high z, manifested in this analysis as a significantly lower observed pressure in the central 0.1R 500of the high-z cool-core subset of clusters compared to the low-z cool-core subset. Overall, our observed pressure profiles agree well with earlier lower-redshift measurements, suggesting minimal redshift evolution in the pressure profile outside of the core. We find no measurable redshift evolution in the entropy profile at r ≲ 0.7R 500- this may reflect a long-standing balance between cooling and feedback over long timescales and large physical scales. We observe a slight flattening of the entropy profile at r ≳ R 500in our high-z subsample. This flattening is consistent with a temperature bias due to the enhanced (3×) rate at which group-mass (2 keV) halos, which would go undetected at our survey depth, are accreting onto the cluster at z 1. This work demonstrates a powerful method for inferring spatially resolved cluster properties in the case where individual cluster signal-to-noise is low, but the number of observed clusters is high.

AB - We present the results of an X-ray analysis of 80 galaxy clusters selected in the 2500 deg2South Pole Telescope survey and observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We divide the full sample into subsamples of 20 clusters based on redshift and central density, performing a joint X-ray spectral fit to all clusters in a subsample simultaneously, assuming self-similarity of the temperature profile. This approach allows us to constrain the shape of the temperature profile over 0 < r < 1.5R 500, which would be impossible on a per-cluster basis, since the observations of individual clusters have, on average, 2000 X-ray counts. The results presented here represent the first constraints on the evolution of the average temperature profile from z = 0 to z = 1.2. We find that high-z (0.6 < z < 1.2) clusters are slightly (30%) cooler both in the inner (r < 0.1R 500) and outer (r > R 500) regions than their low-z (0.3 < z < 0.6) counterparts. Combining the average temperature profile with measured gas density profiles from our earlier work, we infer the average pressure and entropy profiles for each subsample. Confirming earlier results from this data set, we find an absence of strong cool cores at high z, manifested in this analysis as a significantly lower observed pressure in the central 0.1R 500of the high-z cool-core subset of clusters compared to the low-z cool-core subset. Overall, our observed pressure profiles agree well with earlier lower-redshift measurements, suggesting minimal redshift evolution in the pressure profile outside of the core. We find no measurable redshift evolution in the entropy profile at r ≲ 0.7R 500- this may reflect a long-standing balance between cooling and feedback over long timescales and large physical scales. We observe a slight flattening of the entropy profile at r ≳ R 500in our high-z subsample. This flattening is consistent with a temperature bias due to the enhanced (3×) rate at which group-mass (2 keV) halos, which would go undetected at our survey depth, are accreting onto the cluster at z 1. This work demonstrates a powerful method for inferring spatially resolved cluster properties in the case where individual cluster signal-to-noise is low, but the number of observed clusters is high.

KW - early universe

KW - galaxies: clusters: general

KW - galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium

KW - X-rays: galaxies:clusters

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