The role of social and behavioral risk factors in explaining racial disparities in age-related cognitive impairment

a structured narrative review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a growing public health concern with large disparities in incidence and prevalence between African Americans (AAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). The aim of this review was to examine the evidence of association between six modifiable risk factors (education, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, social isolation, and psychosocial stress) and Alzheimer’s disease risk in AAs and NHWs. We identified 3,437 studies; 45 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of the examined risks, education provided the strongest evidence of association with cognitive outcomes in AAs and NHWs. This factor may operate directly on Alzheimer’s disease risk through the neurocognitive benefits of cognitive stimulation or indirectly through social status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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African Americans
Alzheimer Disease
Social Isolation
Physical Education and Training
Public Health
Obesity
Smoking
Education
Incidence
Cognitive Dysfunction

Keywords

  • African American
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • cognitive decline
  • disparities
  • education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

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title = "The role of social and behavioral risk factors in explaining racial disparities in age-related cognitive impairment: a structured narrative review",
abstract = "Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a growing public health concern with large disparities in incidence and prevalence between African Americans (AAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). The aim of this review was to examine the evidence of association between six modifiable risk factors (education, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, social isolation, and psychosocial stress) and Alzheimer’s disease risk in AAs and NHWs. We identified 3,437 studies; 45 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of the examined risks, education provided the strongest evidence of association with cognitive outcomes in AAs and NHWs. This factor may operate directly on Alzheimer’s disease risk through the neurocognitive benefits of cognitive stimulation or indirectly through social status.",
keywords = "African American, Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive decline, disparities, education",
author = "Peterson, {Rachel L.} and Fain, {Mindy J} and Butler, {Emily A} and Ehiri, {John E} and Carvajal, {Scott C}",
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language = "English (US)",
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AU - Butler, Emily A

AU - Ehiri, John E

AU - Carvajal, Scott C

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N2 - Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a growing public health concern with large disparities in incidence and prevalence between African Americans (AAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). The aim of this review was to examine the evidence of association between six modifiable risk factors (education, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, social isolation, and psychosocial stress) and Alzheimer’s disease risk in AAs and NHWs. We identified 3,437 studies; 45 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of the examined risks, education provided the strongest evidence of association with cognitive outcomes in AAs and NHWs. This factor may operate directly on Alzheimer’s disease risk through the neurocognitive benefits of cognitive stimulation or indirectly through social status.

AB - Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a growing public health concern with large disparities in incidence and prevalence between African Americans (AAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). The aim of this review was to examine the evidence of association between six modifiable risk factors (education, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, social isolation, and psychosocial stress) and Alzheimer’s disease risk in AAs and NHWs. We identified 3,437 studies; 45 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of the examined risks, education provided the strongest evidence of association with cognitive outcomes in AAs and NHWs. This factor may operate directly on Alzheimer’s disease risk through the neurocognitive benefits of cognitive stimulation or indirectly through social status.

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