The science of EChO

Giovanna Tinetti, James Y K Cho, Caitlin Griffith, Olivier Grasset, Lee Grenfell, Tristan Guillot, Tommi T. Koskinen, Julianne I. Moses, David Pinfield, Jonathan Tennyson, Marcell Tessenyi, Robin Wordsworth, Alan Aylward, Roy Van Boekel, Angioletta Coradini, Therese Encrenaz, Ignas Snellen, Maria R. Zapatero-Osorio, Jeroen Bouwman, Vincent Coude Du Foresto & 113 others Mercedes Lopez-Morales, Ingo Mueller-Wodarg, Enric Palle, Franck Selsis, Alessandro Sozzetti, Jean Philippe Beaulieu, Thomas Henning, Michael Meyer, Giuseppina Micela, Ignasi Ribas, Daphne Stam, Mark Swain, Oliver Krause, Marc Ollivier, Emanuele Pace, Bruce Swinyard, Peter A R Ade, Nick Achilleos, Alberto Adriani, Craig B. Agnor, Cristina Afonso, Carlos Allende Prieto, Gaspar Bakos, Robert J. Barber, Michael Barlow, Peter Bernath, Bruno Bezard, Pascal Borde, Linda R. Brown, Arnaud Cassan, Celine Cavarroc, Angela Ciaravella, Charles Cockell, Athena Coustenis, Camilla Danielski, Leen Decin, Remco De Kok, Olivier Demangeon, Pieter Deroo, Peter Doel, Pierre Drossart, Leigh N. Fletcher, Matteo Focardi, Francois Forget, Steve Fossey, Pascal Fouque, James Frith, Marina Galand, Patrick Gaulme, Jonay I. Gonzalez Hernandez, Davide Grassi, Matt J. Griffin, Ulrich Grozinger, Manuel Guedel, Pactrick Guio, Olivier Hainaut, Robert Hargreaves, Peter H. Hauschildt, Kevin Heng, David Heyrovsky, Ricardo Hueso, Pat Irwin, Lisa Kaltenegger, Patrick Kervella, David Kipping, Geza Kovacs, Antonino La Barbera, Helmut Lammer, Emmanuel Lellouch, Giuseppe Leto, Mercedes Lopez Morales, Miguel A. Lopez Valverde, Manuel Lopez-Puertas, Christophe Lovis, Antonio Maggio, Jean Pierre Maillard, Jesus Maldonado Prado, Jean Baptiste Marquette, Francisco J. Martin-Torres, Pierre Maxted, Steve Miller, Sergio Molinari, David Montes, Amaya Moro-Martin, Olivier Mousis, Nguyen Tuong, Richard Nelson, Glenn S. Orton, Eric Pantin, Enzo Pascale, Stefano Pezzuto, Ennio Poretti, Raman Prinja, Loredana Prisinzano, Jean Michel Reess, Ansgar Reiners, Benjamin Samuel, Jorge Sanz Forcada, Dimitar Sasselov, Giorgio Savini, Bruno Sicardy, Alan Smith, Lars Stixrude, Giovanni Strazzulla, Gautam Vasisht, Sandrine Vinatier, Serena Viti, Ingo Waldmann, Glenn J. White, Thomas Widemann, Roger Yelle, Yuk Yung, Sergey Yurchenko

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life. The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole. EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the International Astronomical Union
Pages359-370
Number of pages12
Volume6
EditionS276
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameProceedings of the International Astronomical Union
NumberS276
Volume6
ISSN (Print)17439213
ISSN (Electronic)17439221

Fingerprint

planets
extrasolar planets
transit
European Space Agency
solar system
planetology
Kepler mission
atmospheres
stars
space missions
carbon monoxide
water vapor
carbon dioxide
remote sensing
observatories
astrophysics
methane
histories
telescopes
chemistry

Keywords

  • Planetary systems
  • Planetary systems: formation
  • Planets and satellites: formation
  • Planets and satellites: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Tinetti, G., Cho, J. Y. K., Griffith, C., Grasset, O., Grenfell, L., Guillot, T., ... Yurchenko, S. (2010). The science of EChO. In Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union (S276 ed., Vol. 6, pp. 359-370). (Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union; Vol. 6, No. S276). https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743921311020448

The science of EChO. / Tinetti, Giovanna; Cho, James Y K; Griffith, Caitlin; Grasset, Olivier; Grenfell, Lee; Guillot, Tristan; Koskinen, Tommi T.; Moses, Julianne I.; Pinfield, David; Tennyson, Jonathan; Tessenyi, Marcell; Wordsworth, Robin; Aylward, Alan; Van Boekel, Roy; Coradini, Angioletta; Encrenaz, Therese; Snellen, Ignas; Zapatero-Osorio, Maria R.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Du Foresto, Vincent Coude; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Palle, Enric; Selsis, Franck; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Henning, Thomas; Meyer, Michael; Micela, Giuseppina; Ribas, Ignasi; Stam, Daphne; Swain, Mark; Krause, Oliver; Ollivier, Marc; Pace, Emanuele; Swinyard, Bruce; Ade, Peter A R; Achilleos, Nick; Adriani, Alberto; Agnor, Craig B.; Afonso, Cristina; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bakos, Gaspar; Barber, Robert J.; Barlow, Michael; Bernath, Peter; Bezard, Bruno; Borde, Pascal; Brown, Linda R.; Cassan, Arnaud; Cavarroc, Celine; Ciaravella, Angela; Cockell, Charles; Coustenis, Athena; Danielski, Camilla; Decin, Leen; De Kok, Remco; Demangeon, Olivier; Deroo, Pieter; Doel, Peter; Drossart, Pierre; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Focardi, Matteo; Forget, Francois; Fossey, Steve; Fouque, Pascal; Frith, James; Galand, Marina; Gaulme, Patrick; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Grassi, Davide; Griffin, Matt J.; Grozinger, Ulrich; Guedel, Manuel; Guio, Pactrick; Hainaut, Olivier; Hargreaves, Robert; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Heng, Kevin; Heyrovsky, David; Hueso, Ricardo; Irwin, Pat; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kervella, Patrick; Kipping, David; Kovacs, Geza; La Barbera, Antonino; Lammer, Helmut; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Leto, Giuseppe; Morales, Mercedes Lopez; Lopez Valverde, Miguel A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Lovis, Christophe; Maggio, Antonio; Maillard, Jean Pierre; Prado, Jesus Maldonado; Marquette, Jean Baptiste; Martin-Torres, Francisco J.; Maxted, Pierre; Miller, Steve; Molinari, Sergio; Montes, David; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Mousis, Olivier; Tuong, Nguyen; Nelson, Richard; Orton, Glenn S.; Pantin, Eric; Pascale, Enzo; Pezzuto, Stefano; Poretti, Ennio; Prinja, Raman; Prisinzano, Loredana; Reess, Jean Michel; Reiners, Ansgar; Samuel, Benjamin; Forcada, Jorge Sanz; Sasselov, Dimitar; Savini, Giorgio; Sicardy, Bruno; Smith, Alan; Stixrude, Lars; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Vasisht, Gautam; Vinatier, Sandrine; Viti, Serena; Waldmann, Ingo; White, Glenn J.; Widemann, Thomas; Yelle, Roger; Yung, Yuk; Yurchenko, Sergey.

Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. Vol. 6 S276. ed. 2010. p. 359-370 (Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union; Vol. 6, No. S276).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Tinetti, G, Cho, JYK, Griffith, C, Grasset, O, Grenfell, L, Guillot, T, Koskinen, TT, Moses, JI, Pinfield, D, Tennyson, J, Tessenyi, M, Wordsworth, R, Aylward, A, Van Boekel, R, Coradini, A, Encrenaz, T, Snellen, I, Zapatero-Osorio, MR, Bouwman, J, Du Foresto, VC, Lopez-Morales, M, Mueller-Wodarg, I, Palle, E, Selsis, F, Sozzetti, A, Beaulieu, JP, Henning, T, Meyer, M, Micela, G, Ribas, I, Stam, D, Swain, M, Krause, O, Ollivier, M, Pace, E, Swinyard, B, Ade, PAR, Achilleos, N, Adriani, A, Agnor, CB, Afonso, C, Prieto, CA, Bakos, G, Barber, RJ, Barlow, M, Bernath, P, Bezard, B, Borde, P, Brown, LR, Cassan, A, Cavarroc, C, Ciaravella, A, Cockell, C, Coustenis, A, Danielski, C, Decin, L, De Kok, R, Demangeon, O, Deroo, P, Doel, P, Drossart, P, Fletcher, LN, Focardi, M, Forget, F, Fossey, S, Fouque, P, Frith, J, Galand, M, Gaulme, P, Gonzalez Hernandez, JI, Grassi, D, Griffin, MJ, Grozinger, U, Guedel, M, Guio, P, Hainaut, O, Hargreaves, R, Hauschildt, PH, Heng, K, Heyrovsky, D, Hueso, R, Irwin, P, Kaltenegger, L, Kervella, P, Kipping, D, Kovacs, G, La Barbera, A, Lammer, H, Lellouch, E, Leto, G, Morales, ML, Lopez Valverde, MA, Lopez-Puertas, M, Lovis, C, Maggio, A, Maillard, JP, Prado, JM, Marquette, JB, Martin-Torres, FJ, Maxted, P, Miller, S, Molinari, S, Montes, D, Moro-Martin, A, Mousis, O, Tuong, N, Nelson, R, Orton, GS, Pantin, E, Pascale, E, Pezzuto, S, Poretti, E, Prinja, R, Prisinzano, L, Reess, JM, Reiners, A, Samuel, B, Forcada, JS, Sasselov, D, Savini, G, Sicardy, B, Smith, A, Stixrude, L, Strazzulla, G, Vasisht, G, Vinatier, S, Viti, S, Waldmann, I, White, GJ, Widemann, T, Yelle, R, Yung, Y & Yurchenko, S 2010, The science of EChO. in Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. S276 edn, vol. 6, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, no. S276, vol. 6, pp. 359-370. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743921311020448
Tinetti G, Cho JYK, Griffith C, Grasset O, Grenfell L, Guillot T et al. The science of EChO. In Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. S276 ed. Vol. 6. 2010. p. 359-370. (Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union; S276). https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743921311020448
Tinetti, Giovanna ; Cho, James Y K ; Griffith, Caitlin ; Grasset, Olivier ; Grenfell, Lee ; Guillot, Tristan ; Koskinen, Tommi T. ; Moses, Julianne I. ; Pinfield, David ; Tennyson, Jonathan ; Tessenyi, Marcell ; Wordsworth, Robin ; Aylward, Alan ; Van Boekel, Roy ; Coradini, Angioletta ; Encrenaz, Therese ; Snellen, Ignas ; Zapatero-Osorio, Maria R. ; Bouwman, Jeroen ; Du Foresto, Vincent Coude ; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes ; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo ; Palle, Enric ; Selsis, Franck ; Sozzetti, Alessandro ; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe ; Henning, Thomas ; Meyer, Michael ; Micela, Giuseppina ; Ribas, Ignasi ; Stam, Daphne ; Swain, Mark ; Krause, Oliver ; Ollivier, Marc ; Pace, Emanuele ; Swinyard, Bruce ; Ade, Peter A R ; Achilleos, Nick ; Adriani, Alberto ; Agnor, Craig B. ; Afonso, Cristina ; Prieto, Carlos Allende ; Bakos, Gaspar ; Barber, Robert J. ; Barlow, Michael ; Bernath, Peter ; Bezard, Bruno ; Borde, Pascal ; Brown, Linda R. ; Cassan, Arnaud ; Cavarroc, Celine ; Ciaravella, Angela ; Cockell, Charles ; Coustenis, Athena ; Danielski, Camilla ; Decin, Leen ; De Kok, Remco ; Demangeon, Olivier ; Deroo, Pieter ; Doel, Peter ; Drossart, Pierre ; Fletcher, Leigh N. ; Focardi, Matteo ; Forget, Francois ; Fossey, Steve ; Fouque, Pascal ; Frith, James ; Galand, Marina ; Gaulme, Patrick ; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. ; Grassi, Davide ; Griffin, Matt J. ; Grozinger, Ulrich ; Guedel, Manuel ; Guio, Pactrick ; Hainaut, Olivier ; Hargreaves, Robert ; Hauschildt, Peter H. ; Heng, Kevin ; Heyrovsky, David ; Hueso, Ricardo ; Irwin, Pat ; Kaltenegger, Lisa ; Kervella, Patrick ; Kipping, David ; Kovacs, Geza ; La Barbera, Antonino ; Lammer, Helmut ; Lellouch, Emmanuel ; Leto, Giuseppe ; Morales, Mercedes Lopez ; Lopez Valverde, Miguel A. ; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel ; Lovis, Christophe ; Maggio, Antonio ; Maillard, Jean Pierre ; Prado, Jesus Maldonado ; Marquette, Jean Baptiste ; Martin-Torres, Francisco J. ; Maxted, Pierre ; Miller, Steve ; Molinari, Sergio ; Montes, David ; Moro-Martin, Amaya ; Mousis, Olivier ; Tuong, Nguyen ; Nelson, Richard ; Orton, Glenn S. ; Pantin, Eric ; Pascale, Enzo ; Pezzuto, Stefano ; Poretti, Ennio ; Prinja, Raman ; Prisinzano, Loredana ; Reess, Jean Michel ; Reiners, Ansgar ; Samuel, Benjamin ; Forcada, Jorge Sanz ; Sasselov, Dimitar ; Savini, Giorgio ; Sicardy, Bruno ; Smith, Alan ; Stixrude, Lars ; Strazzulla, Giovanni ; Vasisht, Gautam ; Vinatier, Sandrine ; Viti, Serena ; Waldmann, Ingo ; White, Glenn J. ; Widemann, Thomas ; Yelle, Roger ; Yung, Yuk ; Yurchenko, Sergey. / The science of EChO. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. Vol. 6 S276. ed. 2010. pp. 359-370 (Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union; S276).
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title = "The science of EChO",
abstract = "The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life. The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole. EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.",
keywords = "Planetary systems, Planetary systems: formation, Planets and satellites: formation, Planets and satellites: general",
author = "Giovanna Tinetti and Cho, {James Y K} and Caitlin Griffith and Olivier Grasset and Lee Grenfell and Tristan Guillot and Koskinen, {Tommi T.} and Moses, {Julianne I.} and David Pinfield and Jonathan Tennyson and Marcell Tessenyi and Robin Wordsworth and Alan Aylward and {Van Boekel}, Roy and Angioletta Coradini and Therese Encrenaz and Ignas Snellen and Zapatero-Osorio, {Maria R.} and Jeroen Bouwman and {Du Foresto}, {Vincent Coude} and Mercedes Lopez-Morales and Ingo Mueller-Wodarg and Enric Palle and Franck Selsis and Alessandro Sozzetti and Beaulieu, {Jean Philippe} and Thomas Henning and Michael Meyer and Giuseppina Micela and Ignasi Ribas and Daphne Stam and Mark Swain and Oliver Krause and Marc Ollivier and Emanuele Pace and Bruce Swinyard and Ade, {Peter A R} and Nick Achilleos and Alberto Adriani and Agnor, {Craig B.} and Cristina Afonso and Prieto, {Carlos Allende} and Gaspar Bakos and Barber, {Robert J.} and Michael Barlow and Peter Bernath and Bruno Bezard and Pascal Borde and Brown, {Linda R.} and Arnaud Cassan and Celine Cavarroc and Angela Ciaravella and Charles Cockell and Athena Coustenis and Camilla Danielski and Leen Decin and {De Kok}, Remco and Olivier Demangeon and Pieter Deroo and Peter Doel and Pierre Drossart and Fletcher, {Leigh N.} and Matteo Focardi and Francois Forget and Steve Fossey and Pascal Fouque and James Frith and Marina Galand and Patrick Gaulme and {Gonzalez Hernandez}, {Jonay I.} and Davide Grassi and Griffin, {Matt J.} and Ulrich Grozinger and Manuel Guedel and Pactrick Guio and Olivier Hainaut and Robert Hargreaves and Hauschildt, {Peter H.} and Kevin Heng and David Heyrovsky and Ricardo Hueso and Pat Irwin and Lisa Kaltenegger and Patrick Kervella and David Kipping and Geza Kovacs and {La Barbera}, Antonino and Helmut Lammer and Emmanuel Lellouch and Giuseppe Leto and Morales, {Mercedes Lopez} and {Lopez Valverde}, {Miguel A.} and Manuel Lopez-Puertas and Christophe Lovis and Antonio Maggio and Maillard, {Jean Pierre} and Prado, {Jesus Maldonado} and Marquette, {Jean Baptiste} and Martin-Torres, {Francisco J.} and Pierre Maxted and Steve Miller and Sergio Molinari and David Montes and Amaya Moro-Martin and Olivier Mousis and Nguyen Tuong and Richard Nelson and Orton, {Glenn S.} and Eric Pantin and Enzo Pascale and Stefano Pezzuto and Ennio Poretti and Raman Prinja and Loredana Prisinzano and Reess, {Jean Michel} and Ansgar Reiners and Benjamin Samuel and Forcada, {Jorge Sanz} and Dimitar Sasselov and Giorgio Savini and Bruno Sicardy and Alan Smith and Lars Stixrude and Giovanni Strazzulla and Gautam Vasisht and Sandrine Vinatier and Serena Viti and Ingo Waldmann and White, {Glenn J.} and Thomas Widemann and Roger Yelle and Yuk Yung and Sergey Yurchenko",
year = "2010",
month = "10",
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language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780521196529",
volume = "6",
series = "Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union",
number = "S276",
pages = "359--370",
booktitle = "Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union",
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TY - GEN

T1 - The science of EChO

AU - Tinetti, Giovanna

AU - Cho, James Y K

AU - Griffith, Caitlin

AU - Grasset, Olivier

AU - Grenfell, Lee

AU - Guillot, Tristan

AU - Koskinen, Tommi T.

AU - Moses, Julianne I.

AU - Pinfield, David

AU - Tennyson, Jonathan

AU - Tessenyi, Marcell

AU - Wordsworth, Robin

AU - Aylward, Alan

AU - Van Boekel, Roy

AU - Coradini, Angioletta

AU - Encrenaz, Therese

AU - Snellen, Ignas

AU - Zapatero-Osorio, Maria R.

AU - Bouwman, Jeroen

AU - Du Foresto, Vincent Coude

AU - Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

AU - Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

AU - Palle, Enric

AU - Selsis, Franck

AU - Sozzetti, Alessandro

AU - Beaulieu, Jean Philippe

AU - Henning, Thomas

AU - Meyer, Michael

AU - Micela, Giuseppina

AU - Ribas, Ignasi

AU - Stam, Daphne

AU - Swain, Mark

AU - Krause, Oliver

AU - Ollivier, Marc

AU - Pace, Emanuele

AU - Swinyard, Bruce

AU - Ade, Peter A R

AU - Achilleos, Nick

AU - Adriani, Alberto

AU - Agnor, Craig B.

AU - Afonso, Cristina

AU - Prieto, Carlos Allende

AU - Bakos, Gaspar

AU - Barber, Robert J.

AU - Barlow, Michael

AU - Bernath, Peter

AU - Bezard, Bruno

AU - Borde, Pascal

AU - Brown, Linda R.

AU - Cassan, Arnaud

AU - Cavarroc, Celine

AU - Ciaravella, Angela

AU - Cockell, Charles

AU - Coustenis, Athena

AU - Danielski, Camilla

AU - Decin, Leen

AU - De Kok, Remco

AU - Demangeon, Olivier

AU - Deroo, Pieter

AU - Doel, Peter

AU - Drossart, Pierre

AU - Fletcher, Leigh N.

AU - Focardi, Matteo

AU - Forget, Francois

AU - Fossey, Steve

AU - Fouque, Pascal

AU - Frith, James

AU - Galand, Marina

AU - Gaulme, Patrick

AU - Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.

AU - Grassi, Davide

AU - Griffin, Matt J.

AU - Grozinger, Ulrich

AU - Guedel, Manuel

AU - Guio, Pactrick

AU - Hainaut, Olivier

AU - Hargreaves, Robert

AU - Hauschildt, Peter H.

AU - Heng, Kevin

AU - Heyrovsky, David

AU - Hueso, Ricardo

AU - Irwin, Pat

AU - Kaltenegger, Lisa

AU - Kervella, Patrick

AU - Kipping, David

AU - Kovacs, Geza

AU - La Barbera, Antonino

AU - Lammer, Helmut

AU - Lellouch, Emmanuel

AU - Leto, Giuseppe

AU - Morales, Mercedes Lopez

AU - Lopez Valverde, Miguel A.

AU - Lopez-Puertas, Manuel

AU - Lovis, Christophe

AU - Maggio, Antonio

AU - Maillard, Jean Pierre

AU - Prado, Jesus Maldonado

AU - Marquette, Jean Baptiste

AU - Martin-Torres, Francisco J.

AU - Maxted, Pierre

AU - Miller, Steve

AU - Molinari, Sergio

AU - Montes, David

AU - Moro-Martin, Amaya

AU - Mousis, Olivier

AU - Tuong, Nguyen

AU - Nelson, Richard

AU - Orton, Glenn S.

AU - Pantin, Eric

AU - Pascale, Enzo

AU - Pezzuto, Stefano

AU - Poretti, Ennio

AU - Prinja, Raman

AU - Prisinzano, Loredana

AU - Reess, Jean Michel

AU - Reiners, Ansgar

AU - Samuel, Benjamin

AU - Forcada, Jorge Sanz

AU - Sasselov, Dimitar

AU - Savini, Giorgio

AU - Sicardy, Bruno

AU - Smith, Alan

AU - Stixrude, Lars

AU - Strazzulla, Giovanni

AU - Vasisht, Gautam

AU - Vinatier, Sandrine

AU - Viti, Serena

AU - Waldmann, Ingo

AU - White, Glenn J.

AU - Widemann, Thomas

AU - Yelle, Roger

AU - Yung, Yuk

AU - Yurchenko, Sergey

PY - 2010/10

Y1 - 2010/10

N2 - The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life. The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole. EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.

AB - The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life. The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole. EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.

KW - Planetary systems

KW - Planetary systems: formation

KW - Planets and satellites: formation

KW - Planets and satellites: general

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