The spectral energy distributions and infrared luminosities of z ≈ 2 dust-obscured galaxies from Herschel and Spitzer

J. Melbourne, B. T. Soifer, Vandana Desai, Alexandra Pope, Lee Armus, Arjun Dey, R. S. Bussmann, Buell Tomasson Jannuzi, Stacey Alberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a subset of high-redshift (z ≈ 2) optically-faint ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, e.g., L IR > 10 12 L ). We present new far-infrared photometry, at 250, 350, and 500 μm (observed-frame), from the Herschel Space Telescope for a large sample of 113 DOGs with spectroscopically measured redshifts. Approximately 60% of the sample are detected in the far-IR. The Herschel photometry allows the first robust determinations of the total infrared luminosities of a large sample of DOGs, confirming their high IR luminosities, which range from 10 11.6 L <L IR(8-1000 μm) < 10 13.6 L . 90% of the Herschel-detected DOGs in this sample are ULIRGs and 30% have L IR > 10 13 L . The rest-frame near-IR (1-3 μm) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Herschel-detected DOGs are predictors of their SEDs at longer wavelengths. DOGs with "power-law" SEDs in the rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to the QSO-like local ULIRG, Mrk 231. DOGs with a stellar "bump" in their rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to local star-bursting ULIRGs like NGC6240. None show 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to extreme local ULIRG, Arp 220; though three show 350/24 μm flux density ratios similar to Arp 220. For the Herschel-detected DOGs, accurate estimates (within ∼25%) of total IR luminosity can be predicted from their rest-frame mid-IR data alone (e.g., from Spitzer observed-frame 24 μm luminosities). Herschel-detected DOGs tend to have a high ratio of infrared luminosity to rest-frame 8 μm luminosity (the IR8 = L IR(8-1000 μm)/νL ν(8 μm) parameter of Elbaz et al.). Instead of lying on the z = 1-2 "infrared main sequence" of star-forming galaxies (like typical LIRGs and ULIRGs at those epochs) the DOGs, especially large fractions of the bump sources, tend to lie in the starburst sequence. While, Herschel-detected DOGs are similar to scaled up versions of local ULIRGs in terms of 250/24 μm flux density ratio, and IR8, they tend to have cooler far-IR dust temperatures (20-40 K for DOGs versus 40-50 K for local ULIRGs) as measured by the rest-frame 80/115 μm flux density ratios (e.g., observed-frame 250/350 μm ratios at z = 2). DOGs that are not detected by Herschel appear to have lower observed-frame 250/24 μm ratios than the detected sample, either because of warmer dust temperatures, lower IR luminosities, or both.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number125
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume143
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

spectral energy distribution
dust
luminosity
galaxies
energy
flux density
distribution
stars
infrared photometry
coolers
quasars
set theory
photometry
power law
time measurement

Keywords

  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • galaxies: starburst
  • infrared: galaxies
  • submillimeter: galaxies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

The spectral energy distributions and infrared luminosities of z ≈ 2 dust-obscured galaxies from Herschel and Spitzer. / Melbourne, J.; Soifer, B. T.; Desai, Vandana; Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; Dey, Arjun; Bussmann, R. S.; Jannuzi, Buell Tomasson; Alberts, Stacey.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 143, No. 5, 125, 05.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Melbourne, J. ; Soifer, B. T. ; Desai, Vandana ; Pope, Alexandra ; Armus, Lee ; Dey, Arjun ; Bussmann, R. S. ; Jannuzi, Buell Tomasson ; Alberts, Stacey. / The spectral energy distributions and infrared luminosities of z ≈ 2 dust-obscured galaxies from Herschel and Spitzer. In: Astronomical Journal. 2012 ; Vol. 143, No. 5.
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abstract = "Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a subset of high-redshift (z ≈ 2) optically-faint ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, e.g., L IR > 10 12 L ⊙). We present new far-infrared photometry, at 250, 350, and 500 μm (observed-frame), from the Herschel Space Telescope for a large sample of 113 DOGs with spectroscopically measured redshifts. Approximately 60{\%} of the sample are detected in the far-IR. The Herschel photometry allows the first robust determinations of the total infrared luminosities of a large sample of DOGs, confirming their high IR luminosities, which range from 10 11.6 L ⊙ <L IR(8-1000 μm) < 10 13.6 L ⊙. 90{\%} of the Herschel-detected DOGs in this sample are ULIRGs and 30{\%} have L IR > 10 13 L ⊙. The rest-frame near-IR (1-3 μm) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Herschel-detected DOGs are predictors of their SEDs at longer wavelengths. DOGs with {"}power-law{"} SEDs in the rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to the QSO-like local ULIRG, Mrk 231. DOGs with a stellar {"}bump{"} in their rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to local star-bursting ULIRGs like NGC6240. None show 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to extreme local ULIRG, Arp 220; though three show 350/24 μm flux density ratios similar to Arp 220. For the Herschel-detected DOGs, accurate estimates (within ∼25{\%}) of total IR luminosity can be predicted from their rest-frame mid-IR data alone (e.g., from Spitzer observed-frame 24 μm luminosities). Herschel-detected DOGs tend to have a high ratio of infrared luminosity to rest-frame 8 μm luminosity (the IR8 = L IR(8-1000 μm)/νL ν(8 μm) parameter of Elbaz et al.). Instead of lying on the z = 1-2 {"}infrared main sequence{"} of star-forming galaxies (like typical LIRGs and ULIRGs at those epochs) the DOGs, especially large fractions of the bump sources, tend to lie in the starburst sequence. While, Herschel-detected DOGs are similar to scaled up versions of local ULIRGs in terms of 250/24 μm flux density ratio, and IR8, they tend to have cooler far-IR dust temperatures (20-40 K for DOGs versus 40-50 K for local ULIRGs) as measured by the rest-frame 80/115 μm flux density ratios (e.g., observed-frame 250/350 μm ratios at z = 2). DOGs that are not detected by Herschel appear to have lower observed-frame 250/24 μm ratios than the detected sample, either because of warmer dust temperatures, lower IR luminosities, or both.",
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T1 - The spectral energy distributions and infrared luminosities of z ≈ 2 dust-obscured galaxies from Herschel and Spitzer

AU - Melbourne, J.

AU - Soifer, B. T.

AU - Desai, Vandana

AU - Pope, Alexandra

AU - Armus, Lee

AU - Dey, Arjun

AU - Bussmann, R. S.

AU - Jannuzi, Buell Tomasson

AU - Alberts, Stacey

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N2 - Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a subset of high-redshift (z ≈ 2) optically-faint ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, e.g., L IR > 10 12 L ⊙). We present new far-infrared photometry, at 250, 350, and 500 μm (observed-frame), from the Herschel Space Telescope for a large sample of 113 DOGs with spectroscopically measured redshifts. Approximately 60% of the sample are detected in the far-IR. The Herschel photometry allows the first robust determinations of the total infrared luminosities of a large sample of DOGs, confirming their high IR luminosities, which range from 10 11.6 L ⊙ <L IR(8-1000 μm) < 10 13.6 L ⊙. 90% of the Herschel-detected DOGs in this sample are ULIRGs and 30% have L IR > 10 13 L ⊙. The rest-frame near-IR (1-3 μm) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Herschel-detected DOGs are predictors of their SEDs at longer wavelengths. DOGs with "power-law" SEDs in the rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to the QSO-like local ULIRG, Mrk 231. DOGs with a stellar "bump" in their rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to local star-bursting ULIRGs like NGC6240. None show 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to extreme local ULIRG, Arp 220; though three show 350/24 μm flux density ratios similar to Arp 220. For the Herschel-detected DOGs, accurate estimates (within ∼25%) of total IR luminosity can be predicted from their rest-frame mid-IR data alone (e.g., from Spitzer observed-frame 24 μm luminosities). Herschel-detected DOGs tend to have a high ratio of infrared luminosity to rest-frame 8 μm luminosity (the IR8 = L IR(8-1000 μm)/νL ν(8 μm) parameter of Elbaz et al.). Instead of lying on the z = 1-2 "infrared main sequence" of star-forming galaxies (like typical LIRGs and ULIRGs at those epochs) the DOGs, especially large fractions of the bump sources, tend to lie in the starburst sequence. While, Herschel-detected DOGs are similar to scaled up versions of local ULIRGs in terms of 250/24 μm flux density ratio, and IR8, they tend to have cooler far-IR dust temperatures (20-40 K for DOGs versus 40-50 K for local ULIRGs) as measured by the rest-frame 80/115 μm flux density ratios (e.g., observed-frame 250/350 μm ratios at z = 2). DOGs that are not detected by Herschel appear to have lower observed-frame 250/24 μm ratios than the detected sample, either because of warmer dust temperatures, lower IR luminosities, or both.

AB - Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a subset of high-redshift (z ≈ 2) optically-faint ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, e.g., L IR > 10 12 L ⊙). We present new far-infrared photometry, at 250, 350, and 500 μm (observed-frame), from the Herschel Space Telescope for a large sample of 113 DOGs with spectroscopically measured redshifts. Approximately 60% of the sample are detected in the far-IR. The Herschel photometry allows the first robust determinations of the total infrared luminosities of a large sample of DOGs, confirming their high IR luminosities, which range from 10 11.6 L ⊙ <L IR(8-1000 μm) < 10 13.6 L ⊙. 90% of the Herschel-detected DOGs in this sample are ULIRGs and 30% have L IR > 10 13 L ⊙. The rest-frame near-IR (1-3 μm) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Herschel-detected DOGs are predictors of their SEDs at longer wavelengths. DOGs with "power-law" SEDs in the rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to the QSO-like local ULIRG, Mrk 231. DOGs with a stellar "bump" in their rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to local star-bursting ULIRGs like NGC6240. None show 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to extreme local ULIRG, Arp 220; though three show 350/24 μm flux density ratios similar to Arp 220. For the Herschel-detected DOGs, accurate estimates (within ∼25%) of total IR luminosity can be predicted from their rest-frame mid-IR data alone (e.g., from Spitzer observed-frame 24 μm luminosities). Herschel-detected DOGs tend to have a high ratio of infrared luminosity to rest-frame 8 μm luminosity (the IR8 = L IR(8-1000 μm)/νL ν(8 μm) parameter of Elbaz et al.). Instead of lying on the z = 1-2 "infrared main sequence" of star-forming galaxies (like typical LIRGs and ULIRGs at those epochs) the DOGs, especially large fractions of the bump sources, tend to lie in the starburst sequence. While, Herschel-detected DOGs are similar to scaled up versions of local ULIRGs in terms of 250/24 μm flux density ratio, and IR8, they tend to have cooler far-IR dust temperatures (20-40 K for DOGs versus 40-50 K for local ULIRGs) as measured by the rest-frame 80/115 μm flux density ratios (e.g., observed-frame 250/350 μm ratios at z = 2). DOGs that are not detected by Herschel appear to have lower observed-frame 250/24 μm ratios than the detected sample, either because of warmer dust temperatures, lower IR luminosities, or both.

KW - galaxies: high-redshift

KW - galaxies: starburst

KW - infrared: galaxies

KW - submillimeter: galaxies

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