This research demonstrates the use of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a non-contact, nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) technique by presenting experimental results pertinent to damage monitoring and quantification in several material systems at different length scales of interest. At the microstructural level compact tension aluminum alloy specimens were tested under Mode I loading conditions using an appropriate field of view to track grain scale crack initiation and growth. The results permitted the quantification of the strain accumulation near the tip of the fatigue pre-crack, as well as the computation of the relevant crack opening displacement as a function of crack length. At the mesoscale level, damage quantification in fiber reinforced composites subject to both tensile and fatigue loading conditions was achieved by using the DIC as part of a novel integrated NDT approach combining both acoustic and thermal methods. DIC in these experiments provided spatially resolved and high accuracy strain measurements capable to track the formation of damage "hot spots" that corresponded to the sites of the ultimately visible fracture pattern, while it further allowed the correlation of mechanical parameters to thermal and acoustic features. Finally, at the macrostructural level DIC measurements were also performed and compared to traditional displacement gauges mounted on a steel deck model subject to both static and dynamic loads, as well as on masonry structures including hollow and grouted concrete walls.