Oral therapy with ketoconazole for active disseminated or progressive pulmonary coccidioidomycosis was evaluated according to defined criteria of objective improvement for 39 patients, most of whom had received other antifungal chemotherapy. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of ketoconazole for isolates of Coccidioides immitis were below mean peak serum concentrations. Eighteen patients responded at all sites of disease, one patient failed to respond, and the others either are being evaluated or cannot be evaluated. Most patients who responded to therapy required more than three months of treatment before the response was clearly noted. Responses were seen with skin, soft tissue, skeletal, and pulmonary infection as well as other conditions. Reversions of cultures for C. immitis to negative and decreases in titers of complement-fixing antibody were common. One patient relapsed after a course of therapy of only four months. In general, patients with skin disease who responded required only 200 mg per day, whereas those with skeletal disease required 400 mg per day. Adverse effects were uncommon despite extensive monitoring and were generally limited to transient nausea (with vomiting in patients receiving 400 mg per day). The data show that ketoconazole appears to be a promising new drug for treatment of coccidioidomycosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)