3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are widely abused amphetamine derivatives that target the serotonin system. The serotonergic neurotoxicity of MDA and MDMA seems dependent on their systemic metabolism. 5-(Glutathion-S-yl)-α-methyldopamine [5-(GSyl)-α-MeDA] and 2,5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-α-methyldopamine [2,5-bis(GSyl)-α-MeDA], metabolites of MDA and MDMA, are also selective serotonergic neurotoxicants and produce behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with MDA and MDMA. We now show that 5-(GSyl)-α-MeDA and 2,5-bis(GSyl)-α-MeDA are more potent than MDA and MDMA (Ki = 69, 50, 107, and 102 μM, respectively) at inhibiting 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transport into SK-N-MC cells transiently transfected with the human serotonin transporter (hSERT). Moreover, 5-(GSyl)-α-MeDA and 2,5-bis(GSyl)-α-MeDA simultaneously stimulated dopamine (DA) transport into the hSERT-expressing cells, an effect attenuated by fluoxetine, indicating that stimulated DA transport was hSERT-dependent. Finally, 5-(GSyl)-α-MeDA and 2,5-bis(GSyl)-α-MeDA, and to a lesser extent MDA and MDMA, induced a concentration and time-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both hSERT and human dopamine transporter-transfected cells. Fluoxetine attenuated the increase in ROS generation in hSERT-expressing cells. The results are consistent with the view that the serotonergic neurotoxicity of MDA and MDMA may be mediated by the metabolism-dependent stimulation of DA transport into hSERT-expressing cells and ROS generation by redox active catecholthioether metabolites and DA.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Oct 2004|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine