Thrombocytosis has been feared as a source of thrombotic complications during the conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for patients undergoing cardiac procedures. We present a patient urgently requiring repair/replacement of three heart valves that had preexisting myelofibrosis with thrombocytosis (platelet count of 800,000 per µl) and neutrophilia (40,000 per µl). Despite achieving an activated clotting time > 500 s with heparin and antithrombin concentrate administration prior to CPB, the pump oxygenator and reservoir demonstrated significant clot just prior to restoration of the patient’s circulation. The patient subsequently suffered a severe protamine reaction that was successfully managed. A review of the literature of similar patients and the relevant cellular and biochemical mechanisms in this setting are presented, with potential therapeutic approaches to prevent such complications noted.
- Cardiopulmonary bypass
- Platelet factor 4
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine