The paper presents a platform for marketing theory development and programmatic research. This platform fits marketing into a universal and evolutionary exchange paradigm that integrates human exchange with that of other living and nonliving systems. Importantly, it is shown how marketing exchange is itself a part of evolving exchange systems that are commonly discussed in the natural sciences. It is proposed that exchange systems, at all levels, evolve as part of a definable pattern. The integration of marketing exchange with exchange in all natural systems may afford a means for enhancing both the study and practice of marketing.
- and divergence
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)