Transformation of 1H-benzotriazole by ozone in aqueous solution

Douglas B. Mawhinney, Brett J. Vanderford, Shane A. Snyder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Scopus citations

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that 1H-benzotriazole is a widespread contaminant of wastewater and surface water. Although disinfection by ozone has been shown to efficiently remove this compound, the transformation products have not been identified. To that end, the reaction of ozone with 1H-benzotriazole in aqueous solution has been studied in real time employing quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) and negative electrospray ionization. The transformation products have been identified by calculating their empirical formulas using accurate mass measurements, and further confirmed by performing the reaction with stable isotope-labeled 1H-benzotriazole and measuring product ion spectra. Stable reaction products were distinguished from transient species by plotting their extracted mass profiles. The products that resulted from ozone and hydroxyl radicals in the reaction were qualitatively identified by modifying the conditions to either promote the formation of hydroxyl radicals, or to scavenge them. Based on experimental evidence, a mechanism for the direct reaction between ozone and 1H-benzotriazole is proposed that results in the formation of 1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarbaldehyde, which has an empirical formula of C 4H3O2N3. Lastly, it was confirmed that the same transformation products formed in surface water and tertiary-treated wastewater, although they were observed to degrade at higher ozone doses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7102-7111
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume46
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 3 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

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