Injection locking dramatically modifies the phase and transverse output intensity profile of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). Injection can induce a VCSEL to emit a high-order transverse mode. Vortices are generated by three different methods: insertion of a helicoidal phase mask, interference of two Gaussian beams, and injection locking of the TEM01 and TEM10 modes of a VCSEL to form the TEM*01 donut mode. The first two methods stem from geometrical optics; the third method involves nonlinear mode competition in the laser cavity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Applied Mathematics