### Abstract

The classical Lotka-Volterra equations for two competing species have constant coefficients. In this paper these equations are studied under the assumption that the coefficients are periodic functions of a common period. As a generalization of the existence theory for equilibria in the constant coefficient case, it is shown that there exists a branch of positive periodic solutions which connects (i.e. bifurcates from) the two nontrivial periodic solutions lying on the coordinate axes. This branch exists for a finite interval or "spectrum" of bifurcation parameter values (the bifurcation parameter being the average of the net inherent growth rate of one species). The stability of these periodic solutions is studied and is related to the theory of competitive exclusion. A specific example of independent ecological interest is examined by means of which it is shown under what circumstances two species, which could not coexist in a constant environment, can coexist in a limit cycle fashion when subjected to suitable periodic harvesting or removal rates.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 385-400 |

Number of pages | 16 |

Journal | Journal of mathematical biology |

Volume | 10 |

Issue number | 4 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Dec 1980 |

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### Keywords

- Bifurcation
- Competition
- Competitive exclusion
- Periodic environment

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Modeling and Simulation
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Applied Mathematics