We present Spitzer IRS 5-14 μm spectra and 16 μm and 22 μm photometry of the T2.5 companion to the ∼300 Myr old G0V star HN Peg. We incorporate previous 0.8-5 μm observations to obtain the most comprehensive spectral energy distribution (SED) of an intermediate-gravity L/T-transition dwarf that, together with an accurate Gaia EDR3 parallax of the primary, enables us to derive precise fundamental parameters. We find that young (≈0.1-0.3 Gyr) early-T dwarfs on average have ≈140 K lower effective temperatures, ≈20% larger radii, and similar bolometric luminosities compared to ≳1 Gyr old field dwarfs with similar spectral types. Our accurate infrared spectrophotometry offers new detail at wavelengths where the dominant carbon-bearing molecules have their strongest transitions: at 3.4 μm for methane and at 4.6 μm for carbon monoxide. We assess the performance of various widely available photospheric models and find that models with condensates and/or clouds better reproduce the full SED of this moderately young early-T dwarf. However, cloud-free models incorporating a more general convective instability treatment reproduce at least the low-resolution near-infrared spectrum similarly well. Our analysis of R ≈ 2300 J-band spectra shows that the near-infrared potassium absorption lines in HN Peg B have similar strengths to those seen in both younger and older T2-T3 dwarfs. We conclude that while alkali lines are well established as surface gravity indicators for L-type or warmer stars, they are insensitive to surface gravity in early-T dwarfs.
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ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science