The complexity of biologic tissues, with multiple compartments each with its own diffusion and relaxation properties, requires complex formalisms to model water signal in most magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. In this article, we describe a magnetic susceptibility-induced shift in the resonance frequency of extracellular water by the introduction of a gadolinium contrast agent to medium perfusing a hollow fiber bioreactor. The frequency shift of the extracellular water (+185 Hz at 9.4 T) uncovers the intracellular water and allows direct measurement of motional and relaxation properties of the intracellular space. The proposed method provides a unique tool for understanding the mechanisms underlining diffusion and relaxation in the intracellular space.
- Bulk susceptibility
- Intracellular water
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging