An experimental pilot study was conducted to investigate the effects of preoperative massage and music therapy on patients' preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative experiences. Participants were assigned randomly to one of four groups--a group that received massage with music therapy, a group that received massage only, a group that received music therapy only, or a control group. Hemodynamics, serum cortisol and prolactin levels, and anxiety were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Postoperative anxiety levels were significantly lower and postoperative prolactin levels were significantly higher for all groups.
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