Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions

Stewart C. Alexander, David Kirkland Garner, Matthew Somoroff, David J Gramling, Sally A. Norton, Robert Gramling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Being able to identify expressions of emotion is crucial to effective clinical communication research. However, traditional linguistic coding systems often cannot represent emotions that are expressed nonlexically or phonologically (i.e., not through words themselves but through vocal pitch, speed/rhythm/tempo, and volume). Methods: Using audio recording of a palliative care consultation in the natural hospital setting, two experienced music scholars employed Western musical notation, as well as the graphic realization of a digital audio program (Piano roll visualization), to visually represent the sonic features of conversation where a patient has an emotional "choke" moment. Results: Western musical notation showed the ways that changes in pitch and rate correspond to the patient's emotion: rising sharply in intensity before slowly fading away. Piano roll visualization is a helpful supplement. Conclusions: Using musical notation to illustrate palliative care conversations in the hospital setting can render visible for analysis several aspects of emotional expression that researchers otherwise experience as intuitive or subjective. Various forms and formats of musical notation techniques and sonic visualization technologies should be considered as fruitful and complementary alternatives to traditional coding tools in clinical communications research. Practice implications: Musical notation offers opportunity for both researchers and learners to "see" how communication evolves in clinical encounters, particularly where the lexical and phonological features of interpersonal communication are concordant and discordant with one another.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1339-1345
Number of pages7
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
Volume98
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

Fingerprint

Music
Emotions
Communication
Palliative Care
Research Personnel
Expressed Emotion
Linguistics
Research
Referral and Consultation
Technology

Keywords

  • Emotions
  • Empathic Opportunities
  • Music
  • Music notation
  • Patient-provider communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Alexander, S. C., Garner, D. K., Somoroff, M., Gramling, D. J., Norton, S. A., & Gramling, R. (2015). Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions. Patient Education and Counseling, 98(11), 1339-1345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.04.019

Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions. / Alexander, Stewart C.; Garner, David Kirkland; Somoroff, Matthew; Gramling, David J; Norton, Sally A.; Gramling, Robert.

In: Patient Education and Counseling, Vol. 98, No. 11, 01.11.2015, p. 1339-1345.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Alexander, SC, Garner, DK, Somoroff, M, Gramling, DJ, Norton, SA & Gramling, R 2015, 'Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions', Patient Education and Counseling, vol. 98, no. 11, pp. 1339-1345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.04.019
Alexander, Stewart C. ; Garner, David Kirkland ; Somoroff, Matthew ; Gramling, David J ; Norton, Sally A. ; Gramling, Robert. / Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions. In: Patient Education and Counseling. 2015 ; Vol. 98, No. 11. pp. 1339-1345.
@article{cd07fb1529504ecc927194e74715af01,
title = "Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions",
abstract = "Objective: Being able to identify expressions of emotion is crucial to effective clinical communication research. However, traditional linguistic coding systems often cannot represent emotions that are expressed nonlexically or phonologically (i.e., not through words themselves but through vocal pitch, speed/rhythm/tempo, and volume). Methods: Using audio recording of a palliative care consultation in the natural hospital setting, two experienced music scholars employed Western musical notation, as well as the graphic realization of a digital audio program (Piano roll visualization), to visually represent the sonic features of conversation where a patient has an emotional {"}choke{"} moment. Results: Western musical notation showed the ways that changes in pitch and rate correspond to the patient's emotion: rising sharply in intensity before slowly fading away. Piano roll visualization is a helpful supplement. Conclusions: Using musical notation to illustrate palliative care conversations in the hospital setting can render visible for analysis several aspects of emotional expression that researchers otherwise experience as intuitive or subjective. Various forms and formats of musical notation techniques and sonic visualization technologies should be considered as fruitful and complementary alternatives to traditional coding tools in clinical communications research. Practice implications: Musical notation offers opportunity for both researchers and learners to {"}see{"} how communication evolves in clinical encounters, particularly where the lexical and phonological features of interpersonal communication are concordant and discordant with one another.",
keywords = "Emotions, Empathic Opportunities, Music, Music notation, Patient-provider communication",
author = "Alexander, {Stewart C.} and Garner, {David Kirkland} and Matthew Somoroff and Gramling, {David J} and Norton, {Sally A.} and Robert Gramling",
year = "2015",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.pec.2015.04.019",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "98",
pages = "1339--1345",
journal = "Patient Education and Counseling",
issn = "0738-3991",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions

AU - Alexander, Stewart C.

AU - Garner, David Kirkland

AU - Somoroff, Matthew

AU - Gramling, David J

AU - Norton, Sally A.

AU - Gramling, Robert

PY - 2015/11/1

Y1 - 2015/11/1

N2 - Objective: Being able to identify expressions of emotion is crucial to effective clinical communication research. However, traditional linguistic coding systems often cannot represent emotions that are expressed nonlexically or phonologically (i.e., not through words themselves but through vocal pitch, speed/rhythm/tempo, and volume). Methods: Using audio recording of a palliative care consultation in the natural hospital setting, two experienced music scholars employed Western musical notation, as well as the graphic realization of a digital audio program (Piano roll visualization), to visually represent the sonic features of conversation where a patient has an emotional "choke" moment. Results: Western musical notation showed the ways that changes in pitch and rate correspond to the patient's emotion: rising sharply in intensity before slowly fading away. Piano roll visualization is a helpful supplement. Conclusions: Using musical notation to illustrate palliative care conversations in the hospital setting can render visible for analysis several aspects of emotional expression that researchers otherwise experience as intuitive or subjective. Various forms and formats of musical notation techniques and sonic visualization technologies should be considered as fruitful and complementary alternatives to traditional coding tools in clinical communications research. Practice implications: Musical notation offers opportunity for both researchers and learners to "see" how communication evolves in clinical encounters, particularly where the lexical and phonological features of interpersonal communication are concordant and discordant with one another.

AB - Objective: Being able to identify expressions of emotion is crucial to effective clinical communication research. However, traditional linguistic coding systems often cannot represent emotions that are expressed nonlexically or phonologically (i.e., not through words themselves but through vocal pitch, speed/rhythm/tempo, and volume). Methods: Using audio recording of a palliative care consultation in the natural hospital setting, two experienced music scholars employed Western musical notation, as well as the graphic realization of a digital audio program (Piano roll visualization), to visually represent the sonic features of conversation where a patient has an emotional "choke" moment. Results: Western musical notation showed the ways that changes in pitch and rate correspond to the patient's emotion: rising sharply in intensity before slowly fading away. Piano roll visualization is a helpful supplement. Conclusions: Using musical notation to illustrate palliative care conversations in the hospital setting can render visible for analysis several aspects of emotional expression that researchers otherwise experience as intuitive or subjective. Various forms and formats of musical notation techniques and sonic visualization technologies should be considered as fruitful and complementary alternatives to traditional coding tools in clinical communications research. Practice implications: Musical notation offers opportunity for both researchers and learners to "see" how communication evolves in clinical encounters, particularly where the lexical and phonological features of interpersonal communication are concordant and discordant with one another.

KW - Emotions

KW - Empathic Opportunities

KW - Music

KW - Music notation

KW - Patient-provider communication

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84943791049&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84943791049&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.pec.2015.04.019

DO - 10.1016/j.pec.2015.04.019

M3 - Article

C2 - 26160038

AN - SCOPUS:84943791049

VL - 98

SP - 1339

EP - 1345

JO - Patient Education and Counseling

JF - Patient Education and Counseling

SN - 0738-3991

IS - 11

ER -