Background and Purpose-Characterizing International Classification of Disease 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code validity is essential given widespread use of hospital discharge databases in research. Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, we estimated the accuracy of ICD-9-CM stroke codes. Methods-Hospitalizations with ICD-9-CM codes 430 to 438 or stroke keywords in the discharge summary were abstracted for ARIC cohort members (1987-2010). A computer algorithm and physician reviewer classified definite and probable ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Using ARIC classification as a gold standard, we calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity of ICD-9-CM codes grouped according to the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) 2013 categories and an alternative code grouping for comparison. Results-Thirty-three percent of 4260 hospitalizations were validated as strokes (1251 ischemic, 120 intracerebral hemorrhage, 46 subarachnoid hemorrhage). The AHA/ASA code groups had PPV 76% and 68% sensitivity compared with PPV 72% and 83% sensitivity for the alternative code groups.The PPV of the AHA/ASA code group for ischemic stroke was slightly higher among blacks, individuals <65 years, and at teaching hospitals. Sensitivity was higher among older individuals and increased over time. The PPV of the AHA/ASA code group for intracerebral hemorrhage was higher among blacks, women, and younger individuals. PPV and sensitivity varied across study sites. Conclusions-A new AHA/ASA discharge code grouping to identify stroke had similar PPV and lower sensitivity compared with an alternative code grouping. Accuracy varied by patient characteristics and study sites.
- Cerebrovascular disease
- Predictive value
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Clinical Neurology
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing