Virtual Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulation with 3D-Printed Models for Mixed-Reality Nasal Endoscopy

Samuel R. Barber, Saurabh Jain, Young-Jun Son, Eugene H. Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


The surgeon’s knowledge of a patient’s individual anatomy is critical in skull base surgery. Trainees and experienced surgeons can benefit from surgical simulation; however, current models are expensive and impractical for widespread use. In this study, we report a next-generation mixed-reality surgical simulator. We segmented critical anatomic structures for 3-dimensional (3D) models to develop a modular teaching tool. We then developed a navigation tracking system utilizing a 3D-printed endoscope as a trackable virtual-reality (VR) controller and validated the accuracy on VR and 3D-printed skull models within 1 cm. We combined VR and augmented-reality visual cues with our 3D physical model to simulate sinus endoscopy and highlight segmented structures in real time. This report provides evidence that a mixed-reality simulator combining VR and 3D-printed models is feasible and may prove useful as an educational tool that is low cost and customizable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)933-937
Number of pages5
JournalOtolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (United States)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2018



  • 3D printing
  • endoscopic sinus surgery
  • FESS
  • mixed reality
  • surgical simulation
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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