Water and carbon dioxide distribution in the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko coma from VIRTIS-M infrared observations

A. Migliorini, G. Piccioni, F. Capaccioni, G. Filacchione, D. Bockelée-Morvan, S. Erard, C. Leyrat, M. R. Combi, N. Fougere, J. Crovisier, F. W. Taylor, M. C. De Sanctis, M. T. Capria, D. Grassi, G. Rinaldi, G. P. Tozzi, Uwe - Fink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context. Studying the coma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is one of the primary scientific goals of the VIRTIS experiment on the ESA Rosetta mission. Aims. The distribution and variability of water vapour and carbon dioxide in the comet's coma are needed to estimate their production rate, abundances in the nucleus, and the spatial distribution of the active regions. Methods. Infrared emission lines from vibrational bands of water and carbon dioxide at 2.67 and 4.27 μm, respectively, were observed by the VIRTIS-M imaging channel and mapped from close to the nucleus up to ~10 km altitude with a resolution of ~40 m/px. A dataset consisting of 74 observations in the 1-5 μm spectral range acquired from 8 to 14 April 2015 when 67P was at a heliocentric distance of 1.9 AU is analysed in this work. A statistical correlation between the gas distribution and the surface's active regions was performed. Results. The maximum H2O emission is observed within 3 km from the nucleus and is mainly concentrated above two active regions, Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi, while the CO2 distribution appears more uniform with significant emissions coming from both the "head" and southern latitude regions. In the equatorial region, the column densities of both species decrease with altitude, although CO2 decreases more rapidly than H2O. The calculated CO2/H2O column density ratios above Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi are 2.4 ± 0.6% and 3.0 ± 0.7%, respectively. A value equal to 3.9 ± 1.0% is observed at equatorial latitudes in the region encompassing Imothep. Conclusions. VIRTIS-M has mapped the distribution of water vapour and carbon dioxide around the nucleus of 67P with unprecedented spatial resolution. The different water and carbon dioxide outgassing above the surface, seen in the VIRTIS-M data, might be indicative of a different thermal history of the northern and southern hemispheres of 67P.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA45
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume589
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

Fingerprint

coma
dioxides
carbon dioxide
nuclei
comets
water
water vapor
Rosetta mission
statistical correlation
comet
equatorial regions
outgassing
Southern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
European Space Agency
spatial distribution
spatial resolution
histories
distribution
estimates

Keywords

  • Comets: individual: 67P/CG
  • Techniques: imaging spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Water and carbon dioxide distribution in the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko coma from VIRTIS-M infrared observations. / Migliorini, A.; Piccioni, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Erard, S.; Leyrat, C.; Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Crovisier, J.; Taylor, F. W.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Grassi, D.; Rinaldi, G.; Tozzi, G. P.; Fink, Uwe -.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 589, A45, 01.05.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Migliorini, A, Piccioni, G, Capaccioni, F, Filacchione, G, Bockelée-Morvan, D, Erard, S, Leyrat, C, Combi, MR, Fougere, N, Crovisier, J, Taylor, FW, De Sanctis, MC, Capria, MT, Grassi, D, Rinaldi, G, Tozzi, GP & Fink, U 2016, 'Water and carbon dioxide distribution in the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko coma from VIRTIS-M infrared observations', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 589, A45. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527661
Migliorini, A. ; Piccioni, G. ; Capaccioni, F. ; Filacchione, G. ; Bockelée-Morvan, D. ; Erard, S. ; Leyrat, C. ; Combi, M. R. ; Fougere, N. ; Crovisier, J. ; Taylor, F. W. ; De Sanctis, M. C. ; Capria, M. T. ; Grassi, D. ; Rinaldi, G. ; Tozzi, G. P. ; Fink, Uwe -. / Water and carbon dioxide distribution in the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko coma from VIRTIS-M infrared observations. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2016 ; Vol. 589.
@article{f7d31a614078494fa2dcb805aa3c9a3e,
title = "Water and carbon dioxide distribution in the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko coma from VIRTIS-M infrared observations",
abstract = "Context. Studying the coma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is one of the primary scientific goals of the VIRTIS experiment on the ESA Rosetta mission. Aims. The distribution and variability of water vapour and carbon dioxide in the comet's coma are needed to estimate their production rate, abundances in the nucleus, and the spatial distribution of the active regions. Methods. Infrared emission lines from vibrational bands of water and carbon dioxide at 2.67 and 4.27 μm, respectively, were observed by the VIRTIS-M imaging channel and mapped from close to the nucleus up to ~10 km altitude with a resolution of ~40 m/px. A dataset consisting of 74 observations in the 1-5 μm spectral range acquired from 8 to 14 April 2015 when 67P was at a heliocentric distance of 1.9 AU is analysed in this work. A statistical correlation between the gas distribution and the surface's active regions was performed. Results. The maximum H2O emission is observed within 3 km from the nucleus and is mainly concentrated above two active regions, Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi, while the CO2 distribution appears more uniform with significant emissions coming from both the {"}head{"} and southern latitude regions. In the equatorial region, the column densities of both species decrease with altitude, although CO2 decreases more rapidly than H2O. The calculated CO2/H2O column density ratios above Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi are 2.4 ± 0.6{\%} and 3.0 ± 0.7{\%}, respectively. A value equal to 3.9 ± 1.0{\%} is observed at equatorial latitudes in the region encompassing Imothep. Conclusions. VIRTIS-M has mapped the distribution of water vapour and carbon dioxide around the nucleus of 67P with unprecedented spatial resolution. The different water and carbon dioxide outgassing above the surface, seen in the VIRTIS-M data, might be indicative of a different thermal history of the northern and southern hemispheres of 67P.",
keywords = "Comets: individual: 67P/CG, Techniques: imaging spectroscopy",
author = "A. Migliorini and G. Piccioni and F. Capaccioni and G. Filacchione and D. Bockel{\'e}e-Morvan and S. Erard and C. Leyrat and Combi, {M. R.} and N. Fougere and J. Crovisier and Taylor, {F. W.} and {De Sanctis}, {M. C.} and Capria, {M. T.} and D. Grassi and G. Rinaldi and Tozzi, {G. P.} and Fink, {Uwe -}",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/201527661",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "589",
journal = "Astronomy and Astrophysics",
issn = "0004-6361",
publisher = "EDP Sciences",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Water and carbon dioxide distribution in the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko coma from VIRTIS-M infrared observations

AU - Migliorini, A.

AU - Piccioni, G.

AU - Capaccioni, F.

AU - Filacchione, G.

AU - Bockelée-Morvan, D.

AU - Erard, S.

AU - Leyrat, C.

AU - Combi, M. R.

AU - Fougere, N.

AU - Crovisier, J.

AU - Taylor, F. W.

AU - De Sanctis, M. C.

AU - Capria, M. T.

AU - Grassi, D.

AU - Rinaldi, G.

AU - Tozzi, G. P.

AU - Fink, Uwe -

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - Context. Studying the coma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is one of the primary scientific goals of the VIRTIS experiment on the ESA Rosetta mission. Aims. The distribution and variability of water vapour and carbon dioxide in the comet's coma are needed to estimate their production rate, abundances in the nucleus, and the spatial distribution of the active regions. Methods. Infrared emission lines from vibrational bands of water and carbon dioxide at 2.67 and 4.27 μm, respectively, were observed by the VIRTIS-M imaging channel and mapped from close to the nucleus up to ~10 km altitude with a resolution of ~40 m/px. A dataset consisting of 74 observations in the 1-5 μm spectral range acquired from 8 to 14 April 2015 when 67P was at a heliocentric distance of 1.9 AU is analysed in this work. A statistical correlation between the gas distribution and the surface's active regions was performed. Results. The maximum H2O emission is observed within 3 km from the nucleus and is mainly concentrated above two active regions, Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi, while the CO2 distribution appears more uniform with significant emissions coming from both the "head" and southern latitude regions. In the equatorial region, the column densities of both species decrease with altitude, although CO2 decreases more rapidly than H2O. The calculated CO2/H2O column density ratios above Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi are 2.4 ± 0.6% and 3.0 ± 0.7%, respectively. A value equal to 3.9 ± 1.0% is observed at equatorial latitudes in the region encompassing Imothep. Conclusions. VIRTIS-M has mapped the distribution of water vapour and carbon dioxide around the nucleus of 67P with unprecedented spatial resolution. The different water and carbon dioxide outgassing above the surface, seen in the VIRTIS-M data, might be indicative of a different thermal history of the northern and southern hemispheres of 67P.

AB - Context. Studying the coma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is one of the primary scientific goals of the VIRTIS experiment on the ESA Rosetta mission. Aims. The distribution and variability of water vapour and carbon dioxide in the comet's coma are needed to estimate their production rate, abundances in the nucleus, and the spatial distribution of the active regions. Methods. Infrared emission lines from vibrational bands of water and carbon dioxide at 2.67 and 4.27 μm, respectively, were observed by the VIRTIS-M imaging channel and mapped from close to the nucleus up to ~10 km altitude with a resolution of ~40 m/px. A dataset consisting of 74 observations in the 1-5 μm spectral range acquired from 8 to 14 April 2015 when 67P was at a heliocentric distance of 1.9 AU is analysed in this work. A statistical correlation between the gas distribution and the surface's active regions was performed. Results. The maximum H2O emission is observed within 3 km from the nucleus and is mainly concentrated above two active regions, Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi, while the CO2 distribution appears more uniform with significant emissions coming from both the "head" and southern latitude regions. In the equatorial region, the column densities of both species decrease with altitude, although CO2 decreases more rapidly than H2O. The calculated CO2/H2O column density ratios above Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi are 2.4 ± 0.6% and 3.0 ± 0.7%, respectively. A value equal to 3.9 ± 1.0% is observed at equatorial latitudes in the region encompassing Imothep. Conclusions. VIRTIS-M has mapped the distribution of water vapour and carbon dioxide around the nucleus of 67P with unprecedented spatial resolution. The different water and carbon dioxide outgassing above the surface, seen in the VIRTIS-M data, might be indicative of a different thermal history of the northern and southern hemispheres of 67P.

KW - Comets: individual: 67P/CG

KW - Techniques: imaging spectroscopy

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84964746679&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84964746679&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1051/0004-6361/201527661

DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/201527661

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84964746679

VL - 589

JO - Astronomy and Astrophysics

JF - Astronomy and Astrophysics

SN - 0004-6361

M1 - A45

ER -