Water in the atmosphere of HD 209458b from 3.6-8 μm IRAC photometric observations in primary transit

J. P. Beaulieu, D. M. Kipping, V. Batista, G. Tinetti, I. Ribas, S. Carey, J. A. Noriega-Crespo, Caitlin Griffith, G. Campanella, S. Dong, J. Tennyson, R. J. Barber, P. Deroo, S. J. Fossey, D. Liang, M. R. Swain, Y. Yung, N. Allard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The hot Jupiter HD 209458b was observed during primary transit at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We describe the procedures we adopted to correct for the systematic effects present in the IRAC data and the subsequent analysis. The light curves were fitted including limb-darkening effects and fitted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and prayer-bead Monte Carlo techniques, obtaining almost identical results. The final depth measurements obtained by a combined Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit are at 3.6 μm, 1.469 ± 0.013 and 1.448 ± 0.013 per cent; at 4.5 μm, 1.478 ± 0.017 per cent; at 5.8 μm, 1.549 ± 0.015 per cent; and at 8.0 μm, 1.535 ± 0.011 per cent. Our results clearly indicate the presence of water in the planetary atmosphere. Our broad-band photometric measurements with IRAC prevent us from determining the additional presence of other molecules such as CO, CO2 and methane for which spectroscopy is needed. While water vapour with a mixing ratio of combined with thermal profiles retrieved from the day side may provide a very good fit to our observations, this data set alone is unable to resolve completely the degeneracy between water abundance and atmospheric thermal profile.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)963-974
Number of pages12
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume409
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2010

Fingerprint

transit
Markov chains
cameras
Markov chain
atmospheres
atmosphere
water
limb darkening
depth measurement
planetary atmosphere
planetary atmospheres
Space Infrared Telescope Facility
mixing ratios
profiles
Jupiter (planet)
mixing ratio
Jupiter
beads
light curve
water vapor

Keywords

  • Occultations
  • Planetary systems
  • Planets and satellites: general
  • Techniques: photometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Water in the atmosphere of HD 209458b from 3.6-8 μm IRAC photometric observations in primary transit. / Beaulieu, J. P.; Kipping, D. M.; Batista, V.; Tinetti, G.; Ribas, I.; Carey, S.; Noriega-Crespo, J. A.; Griffith, Caitlin; Campanella, G.; Dong, S.; Tennyson, J.; Barber, R. J.; Deroo, P.; Fossey, S. J.; Liang, D.; Swain, M. R.; Yung, Y.; Allard, N.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 409, No. 3, 12.2010, p. 963-974.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Beaulieu, JP, Kipping, DM, Batista, V, Tinetti, G, Ribas, I, Carey, S, Noriega-Crespo, JA, Griffith, C, Campanella, G, Dong, S, Tennyson, J, Barber, RJ, Deroo, P, Fossey, SJ, Liang, D, Swain, MR, Yung, Y & Allard, N 2010, 'Water in the atmosphere of HD 209458b from 3.6-8 μm IRAC photometric observations in primary transit', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 409, no. 3, pp. 963-974. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16516.x
Beaulieu, J. P. ; Kipping, D. M. ; Batista, V. ; Tinetti, G. ; Ribas, I. ; Carey, S. ; Noriega-Crespo, J. A. ; Griffith, Caitlin ; Campanella, G. ; Dong, S. ; Tennyson, J. ; Barber, R. J. ; Deroo, P. ; Fossey, S. J. ; Liang, D. ; Swain, M. R. ; Yung, Y. ; Allard, N. / Water in the atmosphere of HD 209458b from 3.6-8 μm IRAC photometric observations in primary transit. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2010 ; Vol. 409, No. 3. pp. 963-974.
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abstract = "The hot Jupiter HD 209458b was observed during primary transit at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We describe the procedures we adopted to correct for the systematic effects present in the IRAC data and the subsequent analysis. The light curves were fitted including limb-darkening effects and fitted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and prayer-bead Monte Carlo techniques, obtaining almost identical results. The final depth measurements obtained by a combined Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit are at 3.6 μm, 1.469 ± 0.013 and 1.448 ± 0.013 per cent; at 4.5 μm, 1.478 ± 0.017 per cent; at 5.8 μm, 1.549 ± 0.015 per cent; and at 8.0 μm, 1.535 ± 0.011 per cent. Our results clearly indicate the presence of water in the planetary atmosphere. Our broad-band photometric measurements with IRAC prevent us from determining the additional presence of other molecules such as CO, CO2 and methane for which spectroscopy is needed. While water vapour with a mixing ratio of combined with thermal profiles retrieved from the day side may provide a very good fit to our observations, this data set alone is unable to resolve completely the degeneracy between water abundance and atmospheric thermal profile.",
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AU - Beaulieu, J. P.

AU - Kipping, D. M.

AU - Batista, V.

AU - Tinetti, G.

AU - Ribas, I.

AU - Carey, S.

AU - Noriega-Crespo, J. A.

AU - Griffith, Caitlin

AU - Campanella, G.

AU - Dong, S.

AU - Tennyson, J.

AU - Barber, R. J.

AU - Deroo, P.

AU - Fossey, S. J.

AU - Liang, D.

AU - Swain, M. R.

AU - Yung, Y.

AU - Allard, N.

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N2 - The hot Jupiter HD 209458b was observed during primary transit at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We describe the procedures we adopted to correct for the systematic effects present in the IRAC data and the subsequent analysis. The light curves were fitted including limb-darkening effects and fitted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and prayer-bead Monte Carlo techniques, obtaining almost identical results. The final depth measurements obtained by a combined Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit are at 3.6 μm, 1.469 ± 0.013 and 1.448 ± 0.013 per cent; at 4.5 μm, 1.478 ± 0.017 per cent; at 5.8 μm, 1.549 ± 0.015 per cent; and at 8.0 μm, 1.535 ± 0.011 per cent. Our results clearly indicate the presence of water in the planetary atmosphere. Our broad-band photometric measurements with IRAC prevent us from determining the additional presence of other molecules such as CO, CO2 and methane for which spectroscopy is needed. While water vapour with a mixing ratio of combined with thermal profiles retrieved from the day side may provide a very good fit to our observations, this data set alone is unable to resolve completely the degeneracy between water abundance and atmospheric thermal profile.

AB - The hot Jupiter HD 209458b was observed during primary transit at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We describe the procedures we adopted to correct for the systematic effects present in the IRAC data and the subsequent analysis. The light curves were fitted including limb-darkening effects and fitted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and prayer-bead Monte Carlo techniques, obtaining almost identical results. The final depth measurements obtained by a combined Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit are at 3.6 μm, 1.469 ± 0.013 and 1.448 ± 0.013 per cent; at 4.5 μm, 1.478 ± 0.017 per cent; at 5.8 μm, 1.549 ± 0.015 per cent; and at 8.0 μm, 1.535 ± 0.011 per cent. Our results clearly indicate the presence of water in the planetary atmosphere. Our broad-band photometric measurements with IRAC prevent us from determining the additional presence of other molecules such as CO, CO2 and methane for which spectroscopy is needed. While water vapour with a mixing ratio of combined with thermal profiles retrieved from the day side may provide a very good fit to our observations, this data set alone is unable to resolve completely the degeneracy between water abundance and atmospheric thermal profile.

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