Weight lifted in strength training predicts bone change in postmenopausal women

Ellen C. Cussler, Timothy G Lohman, Scott B Going, Linda K Houtkooper, Lauve L. Metcalfe, Hilary G. Flint-Wagner, Robin B Harris, Pedro J. Teixeira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weight lifted in 1 yr of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of calcium-replete, postmenopausal women. Methods: As part of a large clinical trial, 140 calcium-supplemented women, 44-66 yr old, were randomized to a 1-yr progressive strength-training program. Half of the women were using hormone replacement therapy. Three times weekly, subjects completed two sets of six to eight repetitions in eight core exercises at 70-80% of one repetition maximum. BMD was measured at baseline and 1 yr. Results: In multiple linear regression, the increase in femur trochanter (FT) BMD was positively related to total weight lifted (0.001 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.01) after adjusting for age, baseline factors, HRT status, weight change, cohort, and fitness center. The weighted squats showed the strongest (0.002 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.001), whereas the back extension exhibited the weakest (0.0005 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.26) association with change in FT BMD. The amount of weight lifted in the weighted march exercise was significantly related to total body BMD (0.0006 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.01). The associations between weight lifted and BMD for the femur neck or lumbar spine were not significant. Conclusion: Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted in a 1-yr strength-training program reinforces the positive association between this type of exercise and BMD in postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10-17
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume35
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Resistance Training
Bone Density
Weights and Measures
Bone and Bones
Femur
Exercise
Fitness Centers
Calcium
Education
Age Factors
Femur Neck
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Linear Models
Spine
Clinical Trials

Keywords

  • Bone mineral density
  • Osteoporosis
  • Weight lifting
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Weight lifted in strength training predicts bone change in postmenopausal women. / Cussler, Ellen C.; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda K; Metcalfe, Lauve L.; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G.; Harris, Robin B; Teixeira, Pedro J.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 35, No. 1, 01.01.2003, p. 10-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weight lifted in 1 yr of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of calcium-replete, postmenopausal women. Methods: As part of a large clinical trial, 140 calcium-supplemented women, 44-66 yr old, were randomized to a 1-yr progressive strength-training program. Half of the women were using hormone replacement therapy. Three times weekly, subjects completed two sets of six to eight repetitions in eight core exercises at 70-80{\%} of one repetition maximum. BMD was measured at baseline and 1 yr. Results: In multiple linear regression, the increase in femur trochanter (FT) BMD was positively related to total weight lifted (0.001 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.01) after adjusting for age, baseline factors, HRT status, weight change, cohort, and fitness center. The weighted squats showed the strongest (0.002 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.001), whereas the back extension exhibited the weakest (0.0005 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.26) association with change in FT BMD. The amount of weight lifted in the weighted march exercise was significantly related to total body BMD (0.0006 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.01). The associations between weight lifted and BMD for the femur neck or lumbar spine were not significant. Conclusion: Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted in a 1-yr strength-training program reinforces the positive association between this type of exercise and BMD in postmenopausal women.",
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AU - Going, Scott B

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AU - Flint-Wagner, Hilary G.

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AU - Teixeira, Pedro J.

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N2 - Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weight lifted in 1 yr of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of calcium-replete, postmenopausal women. Methods: As part of a large clinical trial, 140 calcium-supplemented women, 44-66 yr old, were randomized to a 1-yr progressive strength-training program. Half of the women were using hormone replacement therapy. Three times weekly, subjects completed two sets of six to eight repetitions in eight core exercises at 70-80% of one repetition maximum. BMD was measured at baseline and 1 yr. Results: In multiple linear regression, the increase in femur trochanter (FT) BMD was positively related to total weight lifted (0.001 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.01) after adjusting for age, baseline factors, HRT status, weight change, cohort, and fitness center. The weighted squats showed the strongest (0.002 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.001), whereas the back extension exhibited the weakest (0.0005 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.26) association with change in FT BMD. The amount of weight lifted in the weighted march exercise was significantly related to total body BMD (0.0006 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.01). The associations between weight lifted and BMD for the femur neck or lumbar spine were not significant. Conclusion: Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted in a 1-yr strength-training program reinforces the positive association between this type of exercise and BMD in postmenopausal women.

AB - Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weight lifted in 1 yr of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of calcium-replete, postmenopausal women. Methods: As part of a large clinical trial, 140 calcium-supplemented women, 44-66 yr old, were randomized to a 1-yr progressive strength-training program. Half of the women were using hormone replacement therapy. Three times weekly, subjects completed two sets of six to eight repetitions in eight core exercises at 70-80% of one repetition maximum. BMD was measured at baseline and 1 yr. Results: In multiple linear regression, the increase in femur trochanter (FT) BMD was positively related to total weight lifted (0.001 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.01) after adjusting for age, baseline factors, HRT status, weight change, cohort, and fitness center. The weighted squats showed the strongest (0.002 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.001), whereas the back extension exhibited the weakest (0.0005 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.26) association with change in FT BMD. The amount of weight lifted in the weighted march exercise was significantly related to total body BMD (0.0006 g·cm-2 for a SD of weight lifted, P<0.01). The associations between weight lifted and BMD for the femur neck or lumbar spine were not significant. Conclusion: Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted in a 1-yr strength-training program reinforces the positive association between this type of exercise and BMD in postmenopausal women.

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