Young children's hand contact activities: An observational study via videotaping in primarily outdoor residential settings

Willa AuYeung, Robert A. Canales, Paloma Beamer, Alesia C. Ferguson, James O. Leckie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Microlevel activity time series (MLATS) data were gathered on hand contact activities of 38 children (1-6 years old) by videotaping in primarily outdoor residential environments. The videotape recordings were then translated into text files using a specialized software called VirtualTimingDevice™. Contact frequency (contacts/h), duration per contact (s/contact), and hourly contact duration (min/h) were summarized for outdoor hand contacts with 15 distinct object/surface categories ("Animal", "Body", "Clothes/Towels", "Fabric", "Floor", "Food", "Footwear", "Metal", "Non-dietary Water", "Paper/Wrapper", "Plastic", "Rock/Brick", "Toys", "Vegetation/Grass", and "Wood") and two aggregate object/surface categories ("Non-dietary objects/surfaces" and "Total objects/surfaces"). For outdoor both hand contacts with "Total objects/surfaces", contact frequencies ranged from 229.9 to 1517.7 contacts/h, median durations/contact ranged from <1 to 5 s, and hourly contact durations ranged from 42.6 to 102.2 m/h. The data were analyzed for significant differences in hand contact activities as a function of (1) age, (2) location, (3) gender, and (4) hand. Significant differences (P≤0.05) were found for all four factors analyzed. Hourly contact durations with "Non-dietary objects/surfaces" and "Total objects/surfaces" increased with age (P=0.01, rs=0.42 and P=0.005, rs=0.46, respectively), while contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Wood" decreased with age (P=0.02, r s=-0.38 and P=0.05, rs=-0.32, respectively). Location was found to affect contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with certain objects/surfaces. For example, contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Fabric" were higher indoors (P=0.02 for both), while contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Vegetation/Grass" were higher outdoors (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). Girls had longer hourly contact durations with "Footwear" (P=0.02), "Non-dietary objects/surfaces" (P=0.03), and "Total objects/surfaces" (P=0.01) than boys. The right hand had longer hourly contact durations with objects that are often manipulated with the hand (e.g., "Toys" (P=0.0002)), while the left hand had longer hourly contact durations with passively touched objects/surfaces (e.g., "Clothes/Towels" (P=0.003) and "Floor" (P=0.04)).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)434-446
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume16
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 26 2006
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Activity pattern
  • Dermal exposure
  • Hand contact behavior
  • Microlevel activity
  • Non-dietary exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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